Wednesday, August 26, 2020

N. Fowleri Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

N. Fowleri Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Chronicled Aspect: Naegleria Fowleri (N. Fowleri ) is a free living, thermophilic protozoan that is a human explicit pathogen that assaults the focal sensory system. It very well may be found in tainted freshwater sources. It enters through the nose and goes to the mind causing essential amoebic meningoencephalitis1. It was first seen in 1899 and later named after Dr. M. Fowler, who watched the principal announced deadly instances of intense pyogenic meningitis in Australia in 19652. While these diseases have been recognized as right on time as the nineteenth century it is trying to distinguish in light of the fact that it mirrors a considerable lot of the side effects of bacterial meningitis[1]. Essential amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a necrotizing and hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis3. The side effects start 1-9 days after the beginning of disease these indications incorporate fever, queasiness, cerebral pain and regurgitating. The underlying side effects emulate those of bacterial meningitis, the later manifestations are one of a kind to this malady. Later side effects incorporate neck solidness, visualizations, seizures, a failure to center, absence of parity and in the long run trance like state and passing. The death rate for this infection is 95%. The malady advances rapidly and prompts demise inside 12 days of the underlying infection1. While this contamination has a high death rate, it is extremely uncommon. There have been 300 announced instances of PAM worldwide in the last 40 years4. Note this molded is regularly misdiagnosed so these numbers are gauges. In the United States there have been 138 cases in the last 50 years1. This contamination was previously a condition that tormented creating nations yet the rate is spreading everywhere throughout the world. Scientists presume that the expanded temperatures because of an unnatural weather change, expanded utilization of open water sources because of shortage and a general increment in oceanic recreational exercises are to blame3,18. While swimming and other sea-going recreational exercises help multiply this infection do as well customs. Aga Khan University in Pakistan saw an expanded number of passings brought about by PAM in youthful guys that had no history of swimming, yet were dedicated Muslims. The individuals who practice this confidence supplicate five times each day and before each petition, they perform bathing, bathing is the washing of the hands, face, ears, nose, mouth, arms and feet. While purging the nose, water is constrained up the nose putting people playing out this training with insufficiently sanitized water at a more serious hazard for PAM3. Strict celebrations like the Kumbh Mela where Hindus assemble and swim in the Ganges waterway put the individuals who take an interest in danger of creating sicknesses like PAM brought about by N. Fowleri 3. Notwithstanding strict practices, helpful intercessions like the Neti pot increment the danger of PAM. Nasal water system frameworks like the Neti pot work to mitigate the side effects of sinusitis and cold. It works by expelling flotsam and jetsam and bodily fluid from the nasal sections. The suggestion is that the water ought to be bubbled or blended in with a non-ionized sodium chloride. Fundamental structure: N. Fowleri are a piece of the free living single adaptable cell that cause contaminations in the focal sensory system. A portion of different protists are Acanthamoeba spp and Balamuthia mandrillas. Naegleria fowleri have been arranged by present day strategies which break down morphology, biochemical pathway and sub-atomic phylogeny2. The advanced methodology arranges N. Fowleri as a piece of the super gathering Excavata, in the gathering Heterolobosea and a piece of the family Vahlkampfiidae. Despite the fact that the genome for N. Fowleri isn't yet finished there are a few investigations creating data about its sub-atomic and hereditary qualities. N. Fowleri s sort incorporates in excess of 40 species, however N. Fowleri is the one in particular that is known to cause sickness in people. De Jonckheere made the most famous recognizable proof framework for N. Fowleri . The ID framework utilizes hereditary markers like inward deciphered spacers (ITS1) and 5.8S rDNA 2. This distinguis hing proof framework uncovered at any rate 8 unique genotypes. The genotypes are scattered among various landmasses America (I,II,III), Europe (III,IV,V,VI,VIII), Oceania (V), and Asia (II,III). Of the eight genotypes just four have been found in people, types 1-42. Naegleria are a piece of the gathering heteroloboseans that have a three-staged lifecycle. They are first one-celled critter, at that point whip and in conclusion growth formation5. N. Fowleri replicates in the one-celled critter structure by means of parallel splitting to deliver the sore and the beat structures. The whole cell cycle is 8 hours, N. Fowleri goes through 28 minutes in M stage, 180 minutes in G1, 183 minutes in S stage, and an hour and a half in G22. In the one-celled critter structure, the trophozoite extends in size from 15-25 Â µm. Trophozoites likewise have cytoplasmic projections called food cups which permit phagocytosis of microscopic organisms, yeast, erythrocytes and cell squander. Trophozoites are the type of the single adaptable cell that can take care of and separate, they are additionally the structure that enter the human host6.Trophozoites will change into the beat stage in the wake of being presented to a saline solution2. The beats can't take care of or separate, the progress additionally includes an adjustment fit as a fiddle from pleomorphic to pear formed with a couple of flagella. The flagella have the average 9+2 structure and are encircled by a cytoplasmic film. The 9+2 flagella structure portrays the cross-sectional game plan of microtubules that make up the flagella. There are nine doublet external tubules and two focal singlet tubules7. The blister structure is impervious to most sterilization. The blister development is round, smooth, twofold walled and refractive. They measure about 20â µm. The material of the sore divider is orchestrated and bundled by the unpleasant endoplasmic reticulum2. Course of Transmission: N. Fowleri is a thermophilic one-celled critter, its ideal temperature ranges from 1150 to 1220 F. N. Fowleri can regularly be found in warm freshwater like lakes and streams, warm water from modern parks, or deficiently artificially rewarded water, other warm water sources like water radiators and soil. In their common habitat N.Fowleri phagocytize cyanobacteria and eubacteria to manage levels. Tests from the pools of the southern United States uncover that N. Fowleri introphozoite formis present throughout the mid year. Throughout the winter months N. Fowleri in pimple structure make due in freshwater sources, however no type of N. Fowleri can withstand frosty temperatures1 . Most instances of PAM are brought about by swimming in warm freshwater, from drinking water, recreational exercises, custom abulation and sinus water system systems1. Disease happens when water containing N. Fowleri gets into the nose. The one-celled critter enters the nose and goes along the olfactory nerve, through a hard plate in the skull called the cribriform plate3. When it arrives at the mind it causes meningoencephalitis, cerebral edema and results in herniation. The olfactory bulbs and orbitofrontal cortices become necrotic and hemorrhagic. The information on the two people and mice bolster the end that passing is eventually brought about by expanded intracranial weight and herniation3. Swimming in water containing N. Fowleri builds the hazard for PAM however age and sex are likewise chance variables. From the 1962-2015 there have been 138 announced instances of PAM in the United States, 114 of the cases have been youngsters around the age of 12. About 75% of the diseases have influenced males1. Certain practices are related with an expanded danger of contamination, those tainted people detailed taking part in water related exercises like swimming, jumping and head dunking1. Despite the fact that N. Fowleri can be transmitted through water it can't be transmitted through pressurized canned products or beads, or by means of individual to individual contact. N. Fowleri can be found in different organs of the body, for example, the heart, lung, spleen and thyroid1. Pathogenesis: N. Fowleri enter the human host through the nose which gives access to the cerebrum. Inside eight hours of disease N. Fowleri is available in the bodily fluid layer of the olfactory epithelium. Inside 24 hours N. Fowleri are in the olfactory bulb and present in the cribriform plate. By 96 hours neutrophil polymorphs cause a serious provocative reaction in the olfactory bulb which prompts cerebrum tissue damage3. Contact subordinate systems are N. Fowleri interceded pathogenic procedures. The essential system of pathogenesis in N. Fowleri is grip. Attachment takes into account development and chemotaxis in the nasal mucosa and helps N. Fowleri with sickness movement. Adhesins are communicated on the outside of N. Fowleri, the adhesins are integrin like proteins encompassed by attachment like structures. Fibronectin restricting protein, protein kinase C and NFa1 are imperative to intruding on the host intervened cytotoxicity3. In a test testing cytopathicity of N. Fowleri, a culture would tie to Fibronectin and in the nearness protein kinase C the capacity of the single adaptable cell to follow increased8. N. Fowleri likewise creates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which harm the host cell. Following cell harm, N. Fowleri utilizes phagocytosis and amoebastomes to help N. Fowleri in separating and expending the cells through a sucker structure on its surface. These procedures are interceded by me ans of actin and include the polymerization of monomeric G-actin and filamentous F-actin. Studies have discovered that a layer protein Mp2CL5 may likewise assume a job in pathogenicity, without this protein N.Fowleri are nonpathogenic3 .This protein is suspected to help in pathogenicity by exploring nature, and development toward food sources9. Notwithstanding contact subordinate systems of pathogenicity, N.Fowleri additionally uses contact autonomous components. N-PFP is a cytolytic pore shaping protein that depolarizes the cell layer and diminishes the uprightness. Naegleriapores An and B are pore shaping polypeptides that are fundamentally the same as in structure and capacity. Both are antimicrobial and cytolytic polypeptides3. The compounds phospholipase

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The End of Reading's Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The End of Reading's Analysis - Essay Example Pattern expresses that, his little girl (Emily) is ordinary in each viewpoint however she isn't acceptable in perusing and this can be ascribed to TV projects and computer games. She may find her friends as far as perusing however it might take her a long time as it is expressed in the book. Pattern has worked in different spots that have given him introduction to investigate material on examination of perusing and visual examinations. He worked for Journal of Media Arts and Cultural Criticism from 1980 to 1995, which bargains in distributing of expositions and articles through film studies, photos and media hypothesis. From the book it is clear that there is another kind of ignorance in America and individuals have depended on accusing schools, the media too hasn’t been deserted in this habitual pettiness. From the book, End of Reading: Gutenberg to Grand Theft Auto, I am going to concentrate on the writer’s thought on The New American proficiency, Blaming Schools, The media caused me to do it and Child advancement and human development to plainly show the significance of perusing and how it has been influenced over the progression of time. Examination Right from the beginning the essayist states about his daughter’s hesitance and failure to understand well and that numerous other kids are influenced by a similar issue, it is obvious that there is some type of absence of education. Besides insights in the book express that one out of seven grown-ups in America is unequipped for perusing a paper. Obviously there is another American lack of education, where individuals don't know much most definitely however lean toward different mechanisms of learning. The Verbal SAT scores of the youngsters in American schools have kept on diminishing throughout the decades that have passed. A scientist, Shieda White, expresses that the vast majority have a trouble in perusing associated sentences or sections. Numerous kids would prefer to play computer ga mes and sit in front of the TV than read a book. Perusing has gotten agonizing to numerous kids in America since many quality it with trouble. The measure of lack of education is expanding in America, this issue is a long way from being done since the vast majority of the individuals and associations that can really transform it have depended on accusing each other. Schools have transformed into the principle focuses of those in scan for somebody to fault about the persevering issue. These learning organizations have been resolutely attempting to instruct the kids and make them progressively associated with the understanding society yet the headway in innovation has bombed them. Youngsters no longer discover books fascinating as they would prefer to utilize PCs, play computer games and sit in front of the TV. During the 90s some author composed books on the impacts of PCs, this when they were beginning to manifest and while their notoriety consistently expanded, Marshall McLuhan and Raymond Williams are among the rare sorts of people who tended to the issue of innovation in schools. Virtual people group (1993) and Manual Castells’ The Information City (1989) are books that were composed just after PCs were presented for individual use, they address how the PCs would have consequences for the general public. On the off chance that at all schools need to make learning successful, at that point it is significant that they utilize visual expressions and present film examines. Some individual might not have the stuff to be acceptable authors so they need to look for different methods for articulation. Leonardo Di Vinci is one individual that can

Friday, August 21, 2020

You Arent Entitled to Anything

You Arent Entitled to Anything In this short video, Joshua Ryan talk about our inherent sense of entitlement, and why we, as people, arent entitled to anything. We know you may not always have time to listen to an entire podcast episode, so we’re posting Quickie Episodes of  The Minimalists Podcast every day on our YouTube channel. The average Quickie is less than 20 minutes and covers only a single topic or question. Subscribe to The Minimalists via email.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Gladiator Of The Roman Empire - 1150 Words

Scott Galati Mr. Berger World history 1010 11/30/14 Roman Gladiators The Romans liked watching other people die; their gladiator games were there live entertainment. It is believed that the first gladiators were slaves who were made to fight to the death at the funeral of a famous aristocrat, Junius Brutus Pera, in 264 BC. The fight between the two was arranged in his honor. Gradually the gladiator games became separated from funeral ceremonies and were staged by the wealthy as a means of displaying their power and influence among the people in the local community. The wealthy and elite classes could promote themselves by sponsoring the games, and paying to put the show on. The term Gladiator comes from the term gladius after the Roman sword. The gladiators were mostly prosecuted criminals, imprisoned soldiers and slaves. These people would be forced to fight other prisoners, sometimes until their death in the case that it was decided for him to die, usually by the spectators. Rarely gladiators would be free, men would sometimes volunteer to be a glad iator and take on the status of a slave to reap the benefits of fame that came along with the title, the fans and money .But the most likely reason why people volunteered was the down-payment that a volunteer received upon taking the gladiator oath. When this oath was taken it meant that the owner the now gladiator had total control over the gladiator s life, making him lowered the status of a slave. Gladiators were known forShow MoreRelatedThe Gladiator The Movie Directed Ridley Scoot Bases A Story During The Ancient Roman Empire977 Words   |  4 PagesThe Gladiator the movie directed Ridley Scoot bases a story during the ancient Roman Empire when the great philosopher and emperor of Rome was Marcus Aurelis. Who is portrayed in the begging of movie as very ill and on his last days, but still on the toe of his battles regarding his health. In the other hand his son and predecessor Commodus is not by his side to witness the battles instead his on safe grounds away from danger. Maxi mus His favored Commander of his army is out in the field riskingRead MoreThe Battle Of Carthage, Romans Were Thirsty For Violence1162 Words   |  5 Pages After the defeat of Carthage, Romans were thirsty for violence. In ancient Rome, gladiators were of the most notorious people on the planet. Deranked from society, they still managed to maintain a high charisma and attained significant amounts of glory. While at camps, they underwent intense training, were treated like animals, and had all their rights stripped from them. But despite the cruelties, they were highly honored and were gifted various rewards and ceremonial banquets on the days beforeRead MoreMovie Analysis : Gladiator 917 Words   |  4 PagesIn the movie Gladiator, Russell Crowe plays a battle hardened Roman General who, through a series of unfortunate events, becomes a gladiator. He starts out on the front lines of a battle against barbarians. The war against them has been going on for some time however this is the final battle that will end the war. The battle rages and the Romans come out victorious. The Caesar then emerges and praises Maximus (Russell Crowe) fo r his leadership. The Caesar then asks him if he will become CaesarRead MoreThe Importance Of Socialization In Ancient Roman Society1043 Words   |  5 Pagesbiggest and most indicative social activity in ancient Roman society was that of gladiatorial combat, and all of the additional components that went along with it. Roman’s of all ages, backgrounds, and social classes spent an exorbitant amount of time observing and enjoying this brutal pastime. For many, especially historians that hold Rome in high regard, it’s hard to believe that these games were such a critical and pervasive component of Roman social life. â€Å"To historians the games are scandalousRead MorePompeii, By Janet Scott Batchler And Lee Batchler929 Words   |  4 Pageswritten by Robert Harris. I chose Pompeii because I heard about the devastating event that took place in the ancient Roman city in various television programs and books. As a result, I wanted to learn more about the event and the daily life of Pompeii before the volcanic eruption occurred. I thought that watching the movie would give me insight about Pompeii and the ancient Roman civilization. In addition, I also chose this film because it features talented actors such as Kit Harington, Adewale Akinnuoye-AgbajeRead MoreThe Trail Of Tears1511 Words   |  7 Pagescommonly known as Gladiators. These fights were a very big thing during early Italy. This one the number one way on entertainment at this time. The barbaric thing about this entertainment is that at the end of the fight the loser has to die and if the in winner refuses to kill the loser they both will be killed. One of the most legendary gladiators of Italy was the name Spartacus. Spartacus was a born in Thrace, Bulgaria around 111-73 BC. During this time Rome was a rising empire and was spreadingRead MoreA Review of Gladiator Essay668 Words   |  3 PagesA Review of Gladiator Hail Caesar, and the return of the Roman Empire. From Quo Vadis to Spartacus, Hollywood has enjoyed a long and fore filling relationship with the sword-and-sandals epics and Ridley Scott (Alien Blade Runner), has released a monumental spectacle; managing to make this forgotten genre bigger, better and more bloody than ever before. Ridley Scott shines as a director through Gladiator. Not only has he managed to create the multiple plotsRead MoreThe Gladiators of Rome983 Words   |  4 PagesTHE GLADIATORS OF ROME In ancient times, the Romans enjoyed watching others get hurt, or even die in the form of Gladiator matches. Most Romans watched these fights in an arena. An arena is a central stage used for sports or spectators. Usually, people paid to watch these fights but on special occasions, the entire event was sponsored by one elite – wealthy Roman and the tickets were given to the general public for free. Although Gladiator fighting might seem barbaric to us today, in theRead MoreIs The Film Pompeii An Accurate Representation Of Slavery During The Ancient Roman Era?1505 Words   |  7 Pagesrepresentation of slavery in the Ancient Roman era? The movie Pompeii produced in 2014, by Paul W.S Anderson, explores the idea of social hierarchy and the class distinctions along with giving a portrayal of the role of slaves within the Roman Empire. While the film does not go in depth on the many different forms of slavery, it does provide minor examples on certain slaves work, and the way they are treated. Slavery played an integral role in the Ancient Roman society, and without it, Rome wouldRead MoreThe Rise and Fall of Ancient Rome656 Words   |  3 Pageswas one of the biggest and greatest empires there was. People might not know about the beginning, the wars, the developments, their life, and the end of the Ancient Rome Rome was started in the eighth century B.C. / 753 B.C. It was started by Romulus in a town by the Timber River. In a legend Romulus and his brother were left in the wild and they were found and raised by a wolf. Romulus killed his brother, then he could become king of Rome. The Roman Empire grew and it came into control of Britain

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

All About Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples

All About Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples Ruthless Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples Strategies Exploited There are a couple places in Africa which are worth mentioning in regards to Africa's popular tourist destinations. The Khoisan, the very first known inhabitants of the nation, were mainly hunter-gatherers. Living up to its name for a nation with unique colours, South Africa also provides some intriguing dishes that's a mixture of dishes from several unique cultures, including Dutch, French, German and British, but using a mixture of the distinctive South African taste. It has several scenic wine routes, not only in the Western Cape, which is the main wine growing region in the country. AmaZink Live is an excellent African show in the little township next to Stellenbosch. They are open 7 days per week and are open late. The web site of one of the best chef schools in the nation, the SA Chefs Academy. Why Almost Everything You've Learned About Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples Is Wrong Subsequently, essay was defined in various ways. Numerous alternative logical structures for essays are visualized as diagrams, making them simple to implement or adapt in the building of an argument. Therefore, the focus isn't merely descriptive. They're a chance to do some creative writing, even in the event the essay topic you decide on looks pretty boring at first. I was hoping to discover a copy of this book to purchase, but it seems to be out of print without even any used copies readily available on Amazon! Simply complete the form at the base of the page to post the essay question and it'll then be posted below. The questions may also provide you with a nation, which is the point where the particular person who posted it took the test. Click the button below to find out more regarding the book or get in contact with us to qualify for our distinctive on-line order discount. The number of these sorts of cultures is decreasing slowly. There are in fact a good deal of various African staple foods found across the full continents that are always prepared differently based on the nation and their culture. Something is differentiable to us through comparison, so for distinguishes culture we need to compare it with some other then we'll know about all facets of that culture thus the culture has to be social and without it there is not any no tion of culture. All in all a legitimate reflection of the nation's rainbow culture with something for everybody. KSAs are used together with resumes to pinpoint who the best applicants are when several candidates are eligible for a job. An increasing number of aid appears to be going to minorities in which there's a high density (for instance, African-American or Hispanic communities). There's a small cover charge for the music but it's well well worth it! Regardless of what the median income, unemployment or general prosperity level is, there'll always be people that are homeless and hungry. Culture is social it's not the individual phenomena. The culture gives solution to the important problem that's faced to community. Distinct cultures define family in various ways. They have different type of buildings. That coffee particularly if it is ordered at one of the numerous superb coffee shops is very likely to be the greatest outside Italy, due to an influx of Italian immigrants in the mid-20th century. It has links to a few other food websites and a few ezines. The very first step is to improve environmental conditions in the area where the projects will be put into place. Be aware this is street style dining there are a few rough looking tables and chairs there's truly no great decor! The New Angle On Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples Just Released Side dishes include bread rolls and a good deal of various kinds of salads. Famous dishes include pickled fish, spicy curries and several different kinds of stew. The everyday dishes a vailable will grow but for the time being expect approximately four meat dishes every day. Among all the delicious cuisine. Grilled peri-peri chicken has turned into a national institution. Fried calamari are not easy to beat. Fried Mozzarella would earn an ideal dish for stater that is everyone's favorite. Fried calamari Fried calamari must be among the most popular restaurant dishes. If You Read Nothing Else Today, Read This Report on Essay about South African Food, Holidays, Famous Places Samples It goes nicely with Jam and Cheese. The two-day event provides a mixture of local and worldwide musicians performing on five unique stages for audiences of over 30,000. It's the ideal holiday because it's the just one where you get presents and find an awesome feast made for you. My holiday feast takes place in the month of December.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Menopause Essay Example For Students

Menopause Essay Menopause is the time in a womans life when the function of the ovaries ceases. The ovary, or female gonad, is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women. The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradualprocess. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experiencefor each woman. The average age of menopause onset is 51 years old. There is no single method topredict when a woman will experience menopause. The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is not related to theage of menopause onset. A women is in menopause when she has had no menstrual periods (menses) for12 months and has no other medical reason for her menses to stop. Symptoms of menopause can be divided into early and late onset symptoms. Early symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, and moodchanges. Late symptoms include vaginal dryness and irritation, osteoporosis, andheart disease. Treatments for menopause are directed toward alleviating the symptoms presentin the particular woman affected. *What is menopause?Menopause is the time in a womans life when the function of the ovaries ceases. Theovary, or female gonad, is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women. They arelocated in the pelvis, one on each side of the uterus. Each ovary is about the size andshape of an almond. The ovaries produce eggs (ova) and female hormones. During eachmonthly menstrual cycle, an egg is released from one ovary. The egg travels from theovary through a fallopian tube to the uterus. The ovaries are the main source of female hormones, which control the development offemale body characteristics such as the breasts, body shape, and body hair. The hormonesalso regulate the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradual process. Thisso-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experience for each woman. Scientists are still determining all the factors that affect when this transition begins andthe details of how it occurs. The average age of menopause is 51 years old. Althoughwomen tend to undergo menopause at an age similar to that of their mothers, this is onlya rough rule of thumb. In fact, there is no single method to predict when a woman willexperience menopause. The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is notrelated to the age of menopause onset. When does a woman know she is in menopause?In order to be menopausal, a woman must have had no menstrual periods (menses) for 12months and have no other medical reason for her menses to stop. Therefore, a womancannot know she is menopausal unless she has not had a menstrual period for 12 months. Are hormone levels or other blood tests helpful in detecting menopause?Because hormone levels may fluctuate greatly in an individual woman, even from oneday to the next, hormone levels are not a reliable indicator for diagnosing menopause. Even if levels are low one day, they may be high the next day in the same woman. Although hormone levels of several blood tests are available, there is no particular singleblood test yet that reliably allows a doctor to predict when a women is going to gothrough menopause in the future, or if she is experiencing the beginning of themenopausal transition. At present, there is no proven role for blood testing regardingmenopause except for tests to exclude medical causes of erratic menstrual periods otherthan menopause. The only way to diagnose menopause is to observe lack of menstrualperiods for 12 months in a woman in the expected age range. *What are the symptoms of menopause?The symptoms of menopause can be divided into early and late onset symptoms. Treatment is directed toward the particular symptoms present. Early symptoms includeabnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, and mood changes. Late symptoms includevaginal dryness and irritation, osteoporosis, and heart disease. These symptoms arediscussed in detail below:Early Onset Symptoms (Perimenopause)Abnormal Vaginal BleedingAbnormal vaginal bleeding may occur during menopause. In general, menstrual periods(menses) at first occur more frequently (meaning the cycle shortens in duration), andsubsequently get farther and farther apart (meaning the cycle lengthens in duration) untilthey stop. Because of this unpredictable pattern, many women will have a period aftergoing for several months without a period. In fact, this type of pattern is common. Thereis not any set length of time it takes for an individual woman to complete her menopausaltransition since all women have different experiences. Some women have minimalproblems with erratic bleeding whereas others have unpredictable, excessive bleeding. Bed-wetting EssayTreatment of Late Onset SymptomsVaginal SymptomsPrior to being treated for vaginal irritation, burning, and itching, women should firstundergo an evaluation by a doctor, including a pelvic exam, to verify that the symptomsare due to estrogen deficiency. There are local (meaning vaginal) and oral treatments forthe symptoms of vaginal estrogen deficiency. Local treatments include the vaginalestrogen ring, vaginal estrogen cream, or vaginal estrogen tablets. Oral treatments includemultiple types of estrogen either alone, or estrogen given with progesterone (seeMedicineNet.coms Hormone Replacement Therapy article). Local and oral estrogentreatments are both effective in relieving vaginal symptoms and are sometimes combinedfor this purpose. In women for whom oral or vaginal estrogens are deemed inappropriate,such as breast cancer survivors, or women who do not wish to take oral or vaginalestrogen, there are a variety of over-the-counter vaginal lubricants. However, they areprobably not as effective in relieving vaginal symptoms as replacing the estrogendeficiency with oral or local estrogen. OsteoporosisThe goal of osteoporosis treatment is the prevention of bone fractures by stopping boneloss and increasing bone density and strength. Although early detection and timelytreatment of osteoporosis can substantially decrease the risk of future fracture, none ofthe available treatments for osteoporosis are complete cures. In other words, it is difficultto completely rebuild bone that has been weakened by osteoporosis. Therefore, theprevention of osteoporosis is as important as treatment. Osteoporosis treatment andprevention measures are:Lifestyle changes including quitting cigarette smoking, curtailing alcoholintake, exercising regularly, and consuming a balanced diet with adequatecalcium and vitamin D. Estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women and those with otherlow estrogen conditions. Medications that stop bone loss and increase bone strength, such as alendronate(Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), raloxifene (Evista), and calcitonin (Calcimar). Heart DiseaseTher e is much controversy regarding whether or how much oral estrogen replacementaffects the risk of heart disease in postmenopausal women. Research with a large enoughnumber of women in well-designed studies is needed. Additionally, we need to be able toseparate out the effects of different types of estrogen preparations to get the answer. Itseems so far that estrogen replacement may protect against heart disease in women whodo not yet have heart disease, but may not be protective in women who are alreadyknown to have heart disease. In the near future, we will have more information frombetter-designed research studies regarding this issue. Menopause At A GlanceMenopause is the time in a womans life when the function of the ovaries ceases. The ovary, or female gonad, is one of a pair of reproductive glands in women. The process of menopause does not occur overnight, but rather is a gradualprocess. This so-called perimenopausal transition period is a different experiencefor each woman. The average age of menopause onset is 51 years old. There is no single method topredict when a woman will experience menopause. The age at which a woman starts having menstrual periods is not related to theage of menopause onset. A women is in menopause when she has had no menstrual periods (menses) for12 months and has no other medical reason for her menses to stop. Symptoms of menopause can be divided into early and late onset symptoms. Early symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, hot flashes, and moodchanges. Late symptoms include vaginal dryness and irritation, osteoporosis, andheart disease. Treatments for menopause are directed toward alleviating the symptoms presentin the particular woman affected. HTML1DocumentEncodingutf-8What is menopause? When does a woman know she isin menopause? Are hormone levels or other blood tests helpful in detecting menopause?What are the symptoms of menopause? Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Hot Flashes Mood Symptoms Vaginal Symptoms Osteoporosis Heart disease What are the treatment options for menopause? Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding Hot Flashes Mood Symptoms Vaginal Symptoms Osteoporosis Heart Disease

Friday, April 3, 2020

It is well established that a judge, as part Essay Example

It is well established that a judge, as part Essay It is good established that a justice, as portion of his built-in power and overruling responsibility in every instance to guarantee that the accused receives a just test, ever has a discretion to except otherwise admissible prosecution grounds if, in his sentiment, its damaging consequence on the heads of the jury outweighs its true probatory value. The PACE 1984, s. 78 ( 1 ) , provides that in any condemnable proceedings the tribunal may decline to let grounds on which the prosecution propose to trust to be given, if it appears to the tribunal that, holding respect to all the fortunes, including the fortunes in which the grounds was obtained, the admittance of the grounds would hold such an inauspicious consequence on the equity of the proceedings that the tribunal ought non to acknowledge it. The Issue refering A’s state of affairs is whether the fortunes in which the grounds obtained via the covert recordings are admissible. The lone valid statement that can be raised by A in this case is if he can demo entrapment. Although entrapment is non a substantial defense mechanism in English Law, where an accused can demo entrapment, the tribunal may remain the proceedings as an maltreatment of the court’s procedure or it may except grounds pursuant to s.78. Entrapment can otherwise be described as state-created offense. A inquiry is whether the imposts officers did no more than show A with an run-of-the-mill chance to perpetrate a offense. Whether a imposts officer can be said to hold caused the committee of the offense, instead than simply supplying an chance for the accused to perpetrate it, will normally be a most of import factor, but non needfully decisive. Ultimately, the overall consideration will be whether the behavior of the officers were so earnestly im proper as to convey the disposal of justness into discredit. We will write a custom essay sample on It is well established that a judge, as part specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on It is well established that a judge, as part specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on It is well established that a judge, as part specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The test justice would hold regard to all the fortunes of the instance. The tribunal will besides hold respect as to whether imposts acted in good religion. Having sensible evidences for intuition is one manner good religion may be established. The rule is that governments such as imposts should forestall and observe offense, non make it. The demand for sensible intuition and proper supervising are both stressed in the clandestine operations codification of pattern. In the instance refering A, it is hard to place any case where the imposts officers may be said to hold overstepped their boundary. There is no issue of them bring oning A to perpetrate the offense or suggestions that any active function was played by the imposts officers to illicit the telephone grounds from A. The covert recording was supervised and recorded, and D’s admittances were sufficient for them to hold sensible intuitions. In the fortunes, it is highly improbable that the test justice will govern to rema in the proceedings or that the grounds will be excluded under s.78. ( 2 ) Defendants tell lies for a figure of grounds, non all of which signify guilt. This is a factual issue and should be left in the custodies of the jury. However, appropriate waies are required in some cases to guarantee equity. In order to steer juries in their attack to the affair of prevarications told by the accused, the justice is obliged in many instances to present a particular waies, known asLucas[ 1 ]Direction. This way is intended to warn juries against leaping excessively readily to the decision that any prevarications told by the suspect can be equated with guilt. There is a profuse instance jurisprudence, which induced Judge LJ inR v Middleton[ 2001 ] Crim LR 251, to state that instead than trawling through the hosts of instances and erudite commentaries, it is best for the tribunal to analyze whether a warning needs to be given in the context of each single instance. As test justice, the chief inquiry that arises is whether it is really necessary for him/her to present a Lucas way? The justice has to cover with this in entries made by the prosecution that purpose to profess that prevarications told by B is grounds of his guilt. In peculiar it was identified inBurge [ 1996 ] Cr App R 163, that amongst other things, a Lucas way is necessary where the prosecution is seeking to demo that something said by the suspect, in relation to a separate and distinguishable issue was a prevarication, and the prosecution relies on the prevarication as grounds of guilt in relation to the charge laid against the suspect. This being indistinguishable to B’s instance, a Lucas way will be required by the justice. In that instance, the jury will necessitate to be given counsel on how to near the prevarications told by the accused. In instances where a Lucas way is requiredJSB Specimen Direction No27edicts that the justice must foremost state the jury that before they proceed farther, they must make up ones mind whether they are certain that the suspect really told the relevant prevarication. In this instance, B is non challenging that he told the prevarication, he disputes that the prevarication was grounds of his guilt. The justice must so travel on to direct that if the jury are certain that B lied intentionally, they must so following ask themselves why the suspect lied. Peoples lie for all sorts of grounds, some are absolutely innocent-for case to bolster a true defense mechanism, to protect person, out of terror or confusion, or to hide some scandalous behavior other than committee of the offense charged. The justice would so mention to whatever account the accused has advanced to explicate why he lied. Then, the justice will state the jury that merely if they are certain that the suspect did non lie for an guiltless ground may they handle the prevarication as grounds back uping the prosecution instance. ( 3 ) Confessions constitute an exclusion to the rumor regulation. Sometimes they can nevertheless turn out undependable and unfortunately, even lead to abortions of justness. The beginning of a confession’s undependability may lie in the methods used to pull out it: if obtained by coercion, which can cover signifiers of force per unit area every bit varied as anguish at one extreme to far more elusive agencies of incentive presented to the suspect at the other, there is a field hazard that the confession may turn out untrue ; and this is rather hazard that the confession may turn out untrue ; and this is rather apart from any farther consideration that, as a affair of policy, the jurisprudence can non merely be seen to hold any truck with confessions obtained particularly oblique or overreaching methods. In position of such considerations, a figure of legal demands, both procedural and evidentiary, have been introduced with a position to cut downing the hazards of abortions of justness provoked by undependable confessional grounds. In add-on to commissariats such as these, nevertheless, tight limitations have been imposed on the conditions under which grounds of a confession may be admitted in a condemnable test. In peculiar, the prosecution may be required to turn out that a confession it wishes to abduce was non obtained in a mode that might project uncertainty on its dependability. S. 82 ( 1 ) PACE defines a confession and trades with the regulations environing it. A figure of regulations, statutory and common jurisprudence regulate the admissibility of confessions. C, holding raised entries contending the admissibility of his confession, it will now be for the test justice to make up ones mind admissibility. S 76 ( 2 ) PACE lays down that a tribunal must except a confession if the prosecution fails to turn out beyond sensible uncertainty that it has non been obtained as a effect of things that were said to C which render his confession undependable. In this instance, things said to C about his in-migration position could arguably render a confession undependable. No improperness needs to be shown on the portion of the imposts officer. S 76 ( 2 ) requires the tribunal, in making its determination to ignore the fact that it may be known that the confession was really true. Farquharson LJ noted inMcGovern ( 1990 ) 92 Cr App R 228,that the fact that the confession was in substance true is expressly excluded by the Act as being a relevant factorâ⠂¬â„¢ . The responsibility of the test justice in make up ones minding admissibility in C’s instance will foremost be designation of everything said and done, so, looking at what was said against the background fortunes, and inquiring whether that was likely to render any confession by C undependable. The tribunal should make up ones mind whether the Crown has proven beyond sensible uncertainty that the confession had non been made as a consequence of things said or done. Even where a confession does non conflict s 76 of PACE, the tribunal to boot has a discretion to except it under s 78 if it appears to the tribunal, that holding respect to all the fortunes in which the grounds was obtained, the admittance of the grounds would hold such an inauspicious consequence on the equity of the proceedings that the tribunal ought non to acknowledge it’ . ( 4 ) A strong statement for pulling inauspicious illation from silence occurs where the accused withholds his defense mechanism under question but presents it at test when it may be excessively late for it to be countered. S 34 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994, provides that illations can be drawn from a suspect unreasonably neglecting to advert facts upon which he later relies in his defense mechanism. The properness of pulling these illations is dependent on whether, in the fortunes bing at the clip, the suspect could moderately hold been expected to hold mentioned peculiar facts when questioned, charged or informed that he might be prosecuted. The drawing of an illation under s 34 is conditional upon the suspect holding antecedently been afforded an chance to take legal advice. The test justice may find that it is unfastened to the jury to pull an illation, in which instance the jury must be carefully instructed on how to near the inquiry, to deduce or non to deduce. The justice will necessitate to give the jury counsel on what fortunes bing at the clip’ must be taken into history. This may include the extent to which the constabulary have disclosed information to the suspect to reference at interview and whether A’s silence was prompted by legal advice by his canvasser. In relation to the latter, the tribunals have repeatedly held that a suspect will constantly necessitate to make more than simply assert that he was moving on legal advice in order to avoid the jury’s being invited to see pulling an inauspicious illation. Therefore, in order to forestall the tribunal from pulling inauspicious illations , A will necessitate to province the footing or the ground for the advice. The suspect might wish to name his canvasser to attest as to why he gave this advice. The prosecution will wish to look into whether the advice was prompted merely by tactical considerations-in which instance the drawing of an inauspicious illation will still be justified. In A’s instance the inquiry for the justice is whether the advice given to A by his canvasser is such that was so necessary that he couldn’t put frontward his account so which he now seeks to trust. ( 5 ) Whether or non the jury rely on D’s unsupported grounds is a factual affair and that is wholly a affair for them to make up ones mind based on all the other back uping grounds that have been presented to them. The test justice will be able to explicate to the jury to look at the grounds as a whole in his account on application of the jurisprudence. Whether or non the justice decides to give a particular warning is wholly at his discretion depending on content and mode of D’s grounds and the issues raised. Basically the inquiry is whether he is a dependable informant? Mirfield,Silence, Confessions and Improperly Obtained Evidence: ( 1997 ) Oxford Publishing Press Munday, Inferences from silence and European Human Rights Law [ 1996 ] Crim LR 370 Munday R,Evidence, Butterworths 2001 Murray P,Blackstone’s Criminal Practice 2004, Oxford Publishing Press 1,998 WORDS

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Dumb-blonde stereotypes Essays

Dumb-blonde stereotypes Essays Dumb-blonde stereotypes Essay Dumb-blonde stereotypes Essay Tony then arrives to let Gary know that their pub is closing down, both shocked Gary walks out abandoning Dorothy, this is a stereotypical think that men dont care about woman as much as booze, or footie.  In scene 2 Gary and Tony have a drink with the new pub landlord; the drink is seen as a stereotypical bonding way of men. Scene 3 in Debs flat is a good scene because it shows how careless men are, when Tony shows up with a condom machine badly wrapped, this also supports the stereotypical idea of men being obsessed with sex. Debs flat is stereotypically feminine in that it is tidy, clean, bright, homely and tasteful unlike Gary and Tonis flat which is dirty and overloaded with beer cans. When Debby tells Tony about her interest in astrology Tony then gives her a stereotypical male view of it guys dont believe in all that bollocks, unless they want to get off with a girl who really thinks (its true). Tony then makes a joke with a sexual overtone, you show me yours, Ill show you mine, again this stereotypical idea that men only think about sex. In scene 4 Tony and Gary go o n a pub crawl to find a new pub, as mentioned they approach this as if buying a house, as it will become their home from now on. Gary makes a list of what to look for in a pub, the list includes taking a good look at the outside step (when they are drunk), and local take-ways (stereotypical lad, them getting drunk and getting the munchies). Over the scene Gary and Tony start dancing drunkenly in the street, this is a very stereotypical. In scene 5 we see Garys flat which has been turned in a pub with the old pubs filthy toilets and the optics. They then start having a conversation about girly words like: loo, doobry, oops, potty, flip flop, being different from guy words such as carburettor, penalty shoot-out. The girly words have a more soft and connotations of home, where as the guy words are linked to stereotypical male obsessions like cars and football. When Dorothy comes in and Gary tries to explain the importance of pubs to men by comparing a pub to cathedral, suggesting that drinking is their religion. Gary then enacts all of his bad habits mentioned earlier. When Gary goes to the pub he lives to-do notes for Dorothy, and she from furry goes to the pub and does a role reversal and acts like a stereotypical lad does. Now what Dorothy does is, in effect, to expose the dominant ideology that says its socially acceptable for men to behave like this, but totally taboo for woman to do the same. The humour in this scene comes through the surprise of the role reversal/breaking of stereotypes showing us what we do not expect to see. The second comedy I am going to look at is AbFab, now the humour comes form the characters breaking the stereotypical representations of woman, unlike MBB where the humour comes form the exaggerated stereotypes. AbFab is an almost entirely female sitcom, there are hardly any men in the programme, and those that appear are usually either gay or unimportant (seen as sex objects, as woman would be seen in MBB and earlier sitcoms. The humour in this sitcom comes from Patsy and Edina acting in this extreme, and in social terms unacceptable behaviour.  The episode of AbFab that Ive studied is the first ever episode made of AbFab. In scene 1 and throughout the episode we see that Edina breaks the stereotype of being a good mother and there is a theme of role reversal in which Edina is, is a teenager and Saffy is the responsible mother figure. The scene opens with Edinas room and shes in bed as she had a hangover from the previous night. This is where we see that she had none of the qualities of a mother: as she is messy, get drunk and smokes to excess (we see bottles, ash trays and cigarette buds all over the room), she is irresponsible (as she cant be asked to get up to go to work), she is lazy and she is very loud. The role reversal is seen when Saffy comes in and starts shouting at Edina to get up and go to work (as if a parent would do to their child), Edina reacts by hiding the drink bottle under her duvet so that Saffy doesnt see it (again as a teenager would hide drinks or fags). The comedy comes from Edina breaking the stereotypical mother image. In the second scene we see Edinas kitchen and again that is also covered with drink bottles everywhere. We see the Edina is not at all domestic because she confuses the washing machine with a cupboard, this reveals that she is not a stereotypical domestic housewife and the humour comes from that.  Saffy is presented as a stereotypical mother should be: caring, responsible, practical, concerned and trying to tell Edina the difference between right and wrong (as a mother should instead its the daughter). Edina acts in a very unfeminine manner, as she is loud, vulgar, aggressive and childish (like a stereotypical teenager would be perceived as). In scene 3 we meet Patsy for the first time, now as soon as she enters the room we can tell that Saffy doesnt like her (like when parents meet daughters boyfriends and think their not good enough). Patsy arrives in a smart suit (this reflects the dominance over Edina and as if she is the man in the partnership). She has a sixties beehive hairdo, this is a throwback to the time that Patsy and Edina are stuck in. now Edina sees her relationship with Patsy more important that the motherly relationship with Saffy ( un stereotypical, as mothers should put their kids before everything else), similar to the relationship in MBB, where they see mates more important than girlfriends. In scene 4 we see Edina and Patsy doing things to excess like drinking, smoking (these are unfeminine vices), later we see them taking drugs like its a everyday, normal thing. Edina seems to have few maternal instinct and Patsy none, Patsy asks whats the point of having kids when all they do is ruin your body, and not come with you to fashion shows, Patsy only sees the disadvantages. Patsy is independent and in control other own sexuality without any maternal hang- ups at all (like a stereotypical man, who has one night stands all the time and doesnt care). Patsy breaks the stereotypical traditional feminine stereotypes as her life seems to revolve around; drinking, smoking, bitching, drugs, and drugs, those things you would expect only a man to do, this breaks all feminine stereotypes, and thats why its seen as funny to the audience as they would never expect a woman to do that. In scene 5 we meet Bubble, she is perceived as and extreme dumb-blonde stereotypes, her name presumably refers to the fact that she is an air-head, but also she is reversing the stereotype of the efficient female assistant. In this scene Edina is very much her own boss (as you would expect a stereotypical man to be), also you see how AbFab is a world of woman, as there are no men in it or the fact that no men are mentioned. We also see how ruthless, insincere, heartless and totally lacking maternal feelings Edina is (you wouldnt expect to see woman like that, it breaks away from the stereotypical representation of woman) when she organises the fashion show.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Bio project Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Bio project - Essay Example Treatment options are very few with varying degree of success percentage. This paper briefly explains Leukemia, probable reasons and treatment options. Exact reasons of blood cancer are still unknown, but genetic effects and exposure to retroviruses are generally considered as the reasons of blood cancer (Mamgain). Leukaemia means ‘white cells in the blood. â€Å"The white cells are part of the body’s immune system, and there are several sub-groups of white cells that have different sorts of roles in recognizing and dealing with ‘invaders’ such as bacteria and viruses as well as other types of foreign protein. All of the blood cells originate in the bone marrow and leukaemia is a disease where the bone marrow produces large numbers of abnormal white cells. This means that the normal marrow is pushed into smaller and smaller areas. This results in fewer normal cells being produced and gives rise to some of the symptoms† (Dr  Ã‚  Green) Blood test and born marrow test is used to confirm leukemia. Based on the nature and seriousness, Leukemia can be classified into four categories; ALL (Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia), AML (Acute Myelocytic Leukemia), CLL (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia), CML (Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia) (CHRONIC LEUKEMIA TREATMENT INFORMATION) Symptoms of leukemia include’ Fatigue, Malaise (vague feeling of bodily discomfort), Abnormal bleeding, Excessive bruising, Weakness, Reduced exercise tolerance, Weight loss, Bone or joint pain, Infection and fever, Abdominal pain or "fullness", Enlarged spleen, lymph nodes, and liver etc (Leukemia Signs and Symptoms, 2009) It is difficult to diagnose blood cancer because of the similarities blood cancer symptoms have with other diseases. For example, fatigue weight loss fever etc is generally associated with many other diseases and the doctors will try to treat such diseases initially before going for a detailed

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

John Stuart Mill Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

John Stuart Mill - Essay Example John Stuart Mill was educated by his father, James Mill, who was cold and rigid. From then Mill understood the undergrounds of liberty and saw the mistakes from his father's rigid system of education: "Mill recognized , in later life, that his father's system had the fault of appealing to the intellect only and that the culture of his practical and emotional life had been neglected".(John Stuart Mill, Life and writings) John Stuart Mill, in his essay "On liberty", mentioned liberty and the relationships between freedom and state. The goal of state is to build a social system that respects and defends human rights and liberties. State can interfere against any individual, if he harms the other one's interests.1 This is the only case when Mill accepts the intervention of the state. There are cases when state rejects the individual's opinion .But that does not mean the point of view is wrong or false. Neither the belief of state, nor the individual' s opinion are totally false, they might contain a certain truth, so they must not be rejected. If this happens, the decision of the state becomes preconception and effects the man's liberty. Mill saw human being as an individual free to think, to speak , to feel. These rights are unquestionable on all the subjects: "()his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign" (qtd. John Stuart Mill' Essay on liberty, p.13) In thi In this relation, man-state, the latter can impose unlimited control, thing that cannot be acceptable. For Mill, education is primordial and it makes the differences between people , so the freedom of speech , of thinking is the most important. Mill speaks about the tyranny of the majority when the state wants to have the unlimited control, to entice the majority: ()There is a limit to the legitimate interference of collective opinion withindividual independence , and to find that limit, and maintain it againstencroachment, is as indispensable to a good condition of human affairs asprotection against political despotism.(qtd. John Stuart Mill's Essay on liberty) The tyranny of the majority often appears in bureaucratic countries. In the case of democratic countries the things go not so bad, because many individuals know and understand the importance of the liberty in all its aspects. Also, in the case of democratic countries and of developed ones, educated people are more and cannot be ruled by a man or a group. So, the danger of tyranny of majority is less. Liberty of speech , sustained by Mill, is indeed a very important right. In some periods the human being was restrained by people who wanted to had the supreme control(a kind of tyranny of the society). For example, the slavery, in the South of America, reserved man from various freedoms: the physical one, the conscience liberty, and maybe the most important one, the freedom of speech. The slaves were revolted mainly because they were treated like animals, they hadn't the right to write, to read or to express their feelings and desires. We can extend here, seeing in these liberties the differences

Monday, January 27, 2020

The Vision Mission And Values Of Good Leadership Business Essay

The Vision Mission And Values Of Good Leadership Business Essay Leadership is the exercise of power; it can be defined as the act of making something happen that would not otherwise occur (Warner Burke, 2002) This is easy to write the definition of leadership but its quite hard to practice in real life. The behaviour does matter first in leadership and the skills are second. There is hell of difference between manager and a leader. The manager more likely depends on management skills, planning, organizational and communication skills but the leader does have the skills of a manager as well as some more qualities. Some people born with qualities of a good leaders and some people develop such qualities in their to be a good leader. There are many qualities which a leader must have like confidence, charisma and the qualities continue to grow in a leader with experience. There are different styles of leadership. Some leaders have no style, which is right for some situation and wrong for some situations as well. Managers, Stake holders, staff, all people have different style of leadership according to different situation. For leadership to work well, people (employees and interested outsiders) must be able to connect their expectations, aims and activities to a basic purpose or philosophy of the organization. This foundational philosophy should provide vital reference points for employees decisions and actions Vision: Defines the desired or intended future state of a specific organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction. Vision is a long-term objective. Mission: Defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, describing why it exists. Mission is a short-term objective. Values: Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of an organization. Values drive an organizations culture and priorities. And every body like executives, managers, staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders, etc, need solid philosophical principles in term of mission vision and values on which to base their expectations, decisions and actions. Evens ,(1963)similarity hypothesis The more the similar parties the parties in dyad are ,the more likely a favourable outcome It means if every individual and and teams know their duties and if they match their goals with strategic direction of the organization than they would have the same thinking and they will work together on the same path which is the strategic direction of the organization to get better outcome . Strategic direction of organization is very important on march 6,1990 west Germany Daimler Benz and Japan Mitsubishi group revealed that they had secret meeting in Singapore .to work on a intensive cooperate among their different projects and lines of business .because germens cooperate structure does not mash or fit with Mitsubishi group of management approach . For this the organizational direction is being used was GSA(global strategic alliance ) which create new horizons in fact by this creates new products and ease the problem of worldwide excess productivity capacity became the essential part of every organizations structure and brought different national origins together. Leadership approaches and styles: Great Man Theories: This theory indicates about the leadership that great leader is born, not made. This kind of theory represents the heroic personalities who were got the qualities of leadership when they were born. Great Man theories assumes that leadership is integral These theories often represent great leaders as heroic, fabulous, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term Great Man was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership. Trait Theories: Similar in some ways to Great Man theories, trait theory focuses on the people receive assured qualities and characters that make them better matched to leadership. Trait theories repeatedly classify specific personality or communicative features shared by leaders. But this theory raises the question as if certain traits are key features of leadership, how do we clarify people who hold those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the problems in using trait theories to illuminate leadership. Contingency Theories: This kind of leadership style emphasis on specific variables which are directly related to environment to have control on style of leadership which is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, the leadership style must be different in different situation. The leader can change their behaviours in different kind of situations. Contingency theory says that the success of a leader depends on the number of variables the leader use in different circumstances and the abilities of the admirers. Situational Theories: This kind of theory illustrates that leader choose the best action must be taken by the leader based upon the situational variable. Decision making in different type of situation does matter in this theory. Behavioral Theories: Behavioural thory believes that the great leaders can be made rather they born with qualities. This leadership theory focuses on the action of leaders rather the mental level, personality and internal qualities. Behavioural theory says people can learn to become great leader through getting knowledge, experience and observations. Participative Theories: The participative leadership theory illustrates that the leaders must take his/her followers into account. In this theory the followers take participate in decision making and the members feel more relevant and committed as well. The leader allows the members to participate in decision making process. Management Theories: Management theories (also known as Transactional theories) emphasis on the role of administration, association, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a structure of incentive and penalty. Managerial theories are frequently used in industry; when workforces are fruitful, they are satisfied; when they fail, they are reproached or penalized. Relationship Theories: Relationship theories (also known as Transformational theories) focus upon the networks formed between leaders and admirers. These leaders stimulate and inspire people by helping group members see the prominence and higher good of the job. Transformational leaders are absorbed on the presentation of group members, but also want each person to achieve his or her impending. These leaders frequently have high principled and moral standards. Leadership could be described in different levels in organization as Direct leadership Which is part to element leadership or direct line is in the organization were staff see their leader all the time . Organizational leadership They are the leaders on hundreds or some time on thousands of the staff but this is indirect leadership to help him there must be the staff at direct level to help the leader for decision making. Strategic leadership Strategic leaders are generally responsible for large organizations and may influence several thousand to hundreds of thousands of people. They establish  organizational structure, allocate resources, and communicate strategic vision. Strategic leaders work in an uncertain environment on highly complex problems that affect and are affected by events and organizations outside their own. Strategic leaders apply many of the same leadership skills and actions they mastered as direct and organizational leaders; however, strategic leadership requires others that are more complex and indirectly applied. Strategic leaders, like direct and organizational leaders, process information quickly, assess alternatives based on incomplete data, make decisions, and generate support. However, strategic leaders decisions affect more people, commit more resources, and have wider-ranging consequences in both space and time than do decisions of organizational and direct leaders. Perhaps of paramount importance-because they exert influence primarily through subordinates-strategic leaders must develop strong skills in picking and developing good second-tier leaders strategic_clip_image001.gif (586ÃÆ'-416) Strategic leadership skills and characteristics: There are many leadership skills and characteristics a person should posses to become a quality manager and to succeed in the globalized world of business.These leaders have certain characteristics such as the leader should be employers brand Should posses emotional intelligence,creativity, innovativeness, and flexibility, posses certain leadership characteristics as high ethical standards, energy, prioritization skills, commitment, dedication, goal orientation, empathetic, and extroverted. Leaders adapt leadership styles accordingly in order to better create and develop new ideas or reform existing ones. Some leaders may choose a certain leadership style based on the culture of their organization. A manager should provide leadership and direction to management levels according to the organizations goals, mission, and vision. Conclusion: Leadership is about the influencing and motivating peoples these days and leader are not born and leader can be developing through organisation structure and development training as well. Among the two leadership styles discussed, there are some that have a better fit in different organizational models. In the non-profit sector, using a servant leadership style would be effective the majority of the time, yet the other two models can be used for specific purposes. The leadership styles are noted in all organizations. However, there is a primary style shared in the organizational culture. There are many other styles not examined in this analysis, which opens the opportunity for further research in this area. Further research can be conducted using other leadership models and other industries. Supplementary research can also be done within each industry subdividing it further. The decision of which style to use in each industry would depend on the leader, follower(s), and tasks. A lead er should learn and practice those skills needed to be a successful leader. In conclusion, individual leaders who have the skills and qualities necessary to succeed are better equipped to execute the styles of leadership discussed. To become a successful leader one should utilize the best suiting style to everyone in every situation. The style of leadership used varies by organization and leader. While organizations may have a primary style of leadership, this is not the inclusive selection or style. The leadership technique and characteristic of the leader varies as the various experiences change. The leader must know to adapt and adjust their leadership style according to the current events of the organization. As the organization evolves through its growth stages, it calls for the use of different leadership styles.

Sunday, January 19, 2020

platos revenge Essay -- essays research papers

  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One’s opinion, philosophy, or ideology, apparent or hidden can help, or hinder individual or collective development. This hindering action is apparent in Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, and the action of helping is apparent in Free at Last by Harriet Jacobs. Each of these authors has their own ideology, which they would like to share.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Plato’s Allegory of the Cave we look into the lives of people whose ideology is chosen for them. These people are forced to sit and stare in one direction their whole life. One would wonder if it ever occurred to them to look to their left of their right. This has been their way of life since childbirth, they know nothing else. How, if you know of nothing else can you come up with your own ideology and make it work? How can you even think without consulting your way first? Maybe thinking is beyond what you are allowed to do.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Within the society in which they are living these people believe that what is right is right because they were never enlightened to anything else. The people never had the chance to look beyond, or to go away and then come back. Plato implies that if one does escape this so-called cave, the others who remain want to kill the escapee.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Once a person has escaped, they see light for the first time. They feel tremendous pain. The reason that they are feeling this is because they have been sheltered for so long. They have not had the opportunity to think for themselves or to realize that there are other ways of life. All of the ideas, all of the new ideologies flow into that persons head. Their mind begins to turn a mile a minute and all of the change is too much to process.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After this escapee had time to sort out these new ideas and form his or her own take on what the world has to offer they want to return to their home and share their takes on life and how things should be. The people of the ‘cave’ have only known one thing. They are never allowed to look to another place for inspiration or for information. They have to go with the flow and accept everything just as it is handed to them. They are forbidden to look elsewhere for answers.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  My ideology is that if you don’t like something, change it. The people in the cave are never ... ...on’t want to believe that the world is so unfair, I don’t want to believe that he wasn’t there to see me walk across the stage at graduation, that he couldn’t make faces at me while I smiled for my prom pictures. I really want to believe that it is all a huge nightmare.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Jacobs lets us all know that we have to get through this ‘dog eat dog world’ with our heads held high, and also by listening to the wisdom of our parents, grandparents, the wisdom of our families.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In each essay we learn of ways that could hinder or help their individual or collective development. In Allegory of the Cave we learn that the society that the ‘cavemen’ live in is hindering their development. They don’t allow their counterparts the chance to develop into anything other than what the society wants. However in Free at Last Jacobs lets us know her feelings she lets her children know her feelings and guides them in the right direction, but she also lets them figure out on their own. She lets them learn for themselves and collectively make their own ideology. She allows for them to think for themselves, therefore she helps them in their development.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Analysis of The Fence

The author started the story by describing the two nipa houses. But if you go back to his introduction after reading the story, you would realize that these adjectives were pertaining to the two main characters, Aling Biang and Aling Sebia. † They were two separate worlds, two opposing planets so near together that their repulsion had become stifled, and its repression become more envenomed. And yet but a yard of parched soil separated them, a yard of brittle-crusted earth with only a stray weed or two to show there was life still thriving in its bosom.†Words from this paragraph maybe too far to explain the character's feelings but it actually did. The author chose to compare the lead characters of his story to two opposing worlds that bounce away from each other resulting to this awkward distance between them. â€Å"–windows as desolate as the soul of the occupants of the house, as sharply angular as the intensity of their hatred. † This clearly shows how e ach of the two characters treat each other. Cold, distant, deserted and empty. By this time the author already catched the attention of the readers. Here, he starts to narrate why the FENCE was built.Aling Biang built the fence from hatred because she caught her husband with Aling Sebia and now she wants to protect her â€Å"properties† away from the â€Å"thief†. Aling Sebia on the other hand built the other half of the fence from hurt out of Aling Biang's offensive and cold words to her. The author made use of the fence as the anger they both have for each other that is why the fence was built by BOTH of them, because aside from the fence they literally built, there is also the great hatred exerted by both their hearts like a barrier that keeps the two of them from forgiving each other.The characteristics of their children may have also been the results of the quarrel between them. The hatred went on like a curse as their children grew to be sickly and ugly. The auth or even used ironies like â€Å"the fence his mother had built and strenghtened–to crush his soul. † and â€Å"crushing sterness† of the fence. These ironies were used to describe what Iking felt towards the hatred that his mother acquired for years now, it was crushing him, his soul. He could have been happier when this anger between the two women wasn't existing at all.A situational irony between Iking and the daughter of Aling Sebia also occured when Iking had spoken to her for the first time, it was also the last time. As Iking awaits for the music, he loses hope and thought that maybe the hatred had also gone through the girl's heart unlike him who kept no hatred or anger. This means that living a life in hatred is a choice you can take or reject. And â€Å"as the moon descended† literally pointed out to his heartbeat slowly dying. He died with a heart of no anger, with an ear waiting for music but was dissaponted.So timely the guitar played as if it mourns for the death of Iking but Aling Buang rather took it a as a mock, she stood and looked accusingly to the other side, but she saw nothing other than the stately white fence which refers to her hatred. As she looks at her neighbor the only feeling she is able to find in her heart is hatred and nothing more than it. Lastly, the author wants us to know the effects of planting hatred within our hearts. I beleive that the author of this story acts as a omniscient third person. he knew each and every detail that only the two women should have known.He also showed us what consequences having hatred can bring in our real lives. The theme of this story is mainly hatred. Hatred is an intense dislike or ill will. The author was able to describe to us how intense the hatred of the two characters contain for each other, he also would like to clear our minds that hatred shouldn't be something we plant inside our hearts and nurture. This is something that would ruin us, our lives and the l ives of the people around us. Why bother hating one person to death when you could have moved on and live a happy life. As they say, we only live once and hatred isn't something worthy to waste a lifetime with.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Public Policy Research Paper On Drugs Essay - 1711 Words

Public Policy Research Paper Drugs. They have entered our communities, our schools, our neighborhoods, our homes. For generations now they have been affecting our society; influencing politics, laws, wars, science, and the overall structure of society. Russia and Mexico have had some of the highest involvement in drugs, and the fight against them. In Russia almost 6 percent of the total population, which is about 8.5 million people are drug addicts, or regular users. Russia has also become increasingly involved in the trafficking of drugs. In comparison Mexico has been one of the largest marketplaces for drugs, and has been a major producer and exporter of marijuana and heroine. In order to further better their countries, Russia and Mexico have implemented certain policies to restrict, outlaw, or limit drugs and the trafficking of them. This paper is going to compare Russia’s and Mexico’s policies on drugs, it will explore the history and background of both countries policies, the effectiveness of each of the countries policies, and will compare the two countries policies. In this comparison we will discover which country if any has had a more effective policy on drugs. The History of Mexico’s Drug Policy For decades now Mexico has fought against drugs, and the trafficking of them. Endless amounts of wars have been fought, and laws have been broken. During the Echeverrà ­a and Lopez Portillo administrations around 1970-1982Show MoreRelatedJournals Should Stop Publishing Papers Backed By Pharmaceutical1428 Words   |  6 Pagesshould stop publishing papers backed by pharmaceutical companies. The main reason for this is that these papers cannot be trusted. Pharmaceutical companies conduct research with the goal of coming up with new products. Not new cures. 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