Wednesday, November 27, 2019
All About ParaÃ ®tre ParaÃ ®tre is a very common and useful French verb that means to look/appear/seem. It is irregular in conjunction and can be used impersonally. Examples ofParatre in Use Ã ParaÃ ®tre can be followed by an adjective, infinitive, or prepositional phrase:Ã Ã Ã Tu parais bien heureuxÃ Ã Ã You look very happyÃ Ã Ã Cela paraÃ ®t Ã ªtre une erreurÃ Ã Ã That seems to be a mistakeÃ Ã Ã Une lueur a paru dans ses yeuxÃ Ã Ã A gleam appeared in his eyeParaÃ ®tre can also mean to make an appearance:Ã Ã Ã Il na pas paru la rÃ ©unionÃ Ã Ã He didnt appear (show up) at the meetingÃ Ã Ã Je dÃ ©teste paraÃ ®tre en publicÃ Ã Ã I hate appearing in publicParaÃ ®tre is usually conjugated with avoir as its auxiliary verb in the compound tenses, except in the context of publishing, in which it is often conjugated with Ã ªtre:Ã Ã Ã Cet article est paru mi-juin.Ã Ã Ã This article was published in mid-June.Ã Ã Ã Le nouveau Petit Larousse est paru.Ã Ã Ã The new (edition of) Le Petit Larousse is out. Using Il parat Il paraÃ ®t is an impersonal construction that means it seems in the global sense (like, they say or the word is) and can be followed by an adjective or a subordinate clause.1) Il paraÃ ®t adjective is followed by de infinitive, and may also be modifed by an indirect object pronoun:Ã Ã Ã Il paraÃ ®t important dessayerÃ Ã Ã It seems important to tryÃ Ã Ã Il ne paraÃ ®t pas essentiel dy allerÃ Ã Ã It doesnt seem essential to goÃ Ã Ã Il me paraÃ ®t ridicule de courirÃ Ã Ã It seems ridiculous to me to runÃ Ã Ã Il ne nous paraÃ ®t pas logique de faire Ã §aÃ Ã Ã To us it doesnt seem / We dont think its logical to do that2) Il paraÃ ®t que is followed by a subordinate clause in the indicative:Ã Ã Ã Il paraÃ ®t quil va pleuvoir demainÃ Ã Ã It seems like / They say its going to rain tomorrowÃ Ã Ã Il paraÃ ®t que nous devons refaire ce travailÃ Ã Ã It seems / The word is that were going to have to redo th is work3) Il paraÃ ®t may be modified by an adjective before que, in which case the verb in the subordinate clause may be in the indicative or subjunctive, depending on what the adjective requires:*Ã Ã Ã Il paraÃ ®t important que tu le fasses seulÃ Ã Ã It seems / Apparently its important that you do it aloneÃ Ã Ã Il paraÃ ®t clair quon ne peut pas gagnerÃ Ã Ã It seems clear that we cant win*That is, if the expression would need the subjunctive without paraÃ ®t then it also needs it with paraÃ ®t: il est important que subjunctive, thus il paraÃ ®t important que subjunctive4) When il paraÃ ®t que is modifed by an indirect object pronoun, it is equivalent to it seems (to me, to us, etc):Ã Ã Ã Il me paraÃ ®t important que tu comprennesÃ Ã Ã It seems to me that its important that you understand (I think its important for you to understand)Ã Ã Ã Il nous paraÃ ®t sÃ »r quon va gagnerÃ Ã Ã It seems certain to us / We think its certain that were going to winÃ Ã Ã Il nous paraÃ ®t quil peut venirÃ Ã Ã It seems to us / We think that it he can come5) Il ne paraÃ ®t pas que requires the subjunctive:Ã Ã Ã Il ne paraÃ ®t pas quil vienneÃ Ã Ã It doesnt seem that hes coming; He doesnt seem to be comingÃ Ã Ã Il ne paraÃ ®t pas quon puisse gagnerÃ Ã Ã It doesnt seem like we can win Expressions with paratre Ã Ã Ã ce quil paraÃ ®t - apparentlyÃ Ã Ã paraÃ ®t-il - apparentlyÃ Ã Ã il paraÃ ®t que oui - so it seemsÃ Ã Ã il paraÃ ®t que non - apparently not Conjugations Ã Ã Ã je paraisÃ Ã Ã tuÃ paraisÃ Ã Ã il paraÃ ®tÃ Ã Ã nousÃ paraissonsÃ Ã Ã vousÃ paraissezÃ Ã Ã ilsÃ paraissent
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Why Presidents Use So Many Pens to Sign Bills Into Law Presidents often use several pens to sign a bill into law, a tradition dates back nearly a centuryÃ and continues to this day. President Donald Trump, for example, used several bill-signing pens on his first day in office when he put his signature on his first executive order,Ã instructing federal agencies to uphold the Affordable Care Act while alsoÃ working to minimize the unwarranted economic and regulatory burdens on American citizens and companies. Trump used so many pens and handed them out as souvenirs on Jan. 20, 2017, the day he was sworn into office, that he joked to staff: Ã¢â¬Å"I think weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to need some more pens, by the way ... The government is getting stingy, right?Ã¢â¬ Oddly enough, before Trump,Ã President Barack ObamaÃ used nearly two dozen pens to sign that same legislation into law inÃ 2010. Thats a lot of pens. Unlike his predecessor, Trump uses gold-plated pens fromÃ A.T. Cross Co.Ã based in Rhode Island. The companys suggested retail price for the pens is $115 apiece. The practice of using several pens isnt universal, however. Obamas predecessor, President George W. Bush, never used more than one pen to sign a bill into law. TraditionÃ The first president to use more than one pen to sign a bill into law was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who served in the White House from March 1933 until April 1945. According to Bradley H. Pattersons To Serve the President: Continuity and Innovation in the White House Staff, the president used several pens to sign bills of high public interest during signing ceremonies in the Oval Office. Most presidents now use multiple pens to sign those bills into law. So what did the president do with all those pens? He gave them away, most of the time. Presidents gave the pens as commemorative souvenirs to members of Congress or other dignitaries who had been active in getting the legislation passed.Ã Each pen was presented in a special box bearing the presidential seal and the name of the president who did the signing,Ã Patterson writes. Valuable Souvenirs Jim Kratsas of the Gerald R. Ford Presidential Museum told National Public Radio in 2010 that presidents have been using multiple pens so they can distribute them to lawmakers and others who were instrumental in shepherding the legislation through Congress at least since President Harry Truman was in office. As Time magazine put it: The more pens a President uses, the more thank-you gifts he can offer to those who helped create that piece of history. The pens used by presidents to sign important pieces of legislation are considered valuable and have shown up for sale in some cases. One pen showed up for sale on the Internet for $500. Examples Most modern presidents use more than one pen to sign landmark legislation into law.Ã President Bill Clinton used four pens to sign theÃ Line-Item Veto. He gave the pens to former PresidentsÃ Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H.W. Bush, according to an account of the signing by Time magazine.Obama used 22 pens to sign health care reform legislation into law in March of 2010. He used a different pen for each letter or half letter of his name. This is gonna take a little while, Obama said. According to the Christian Science Monitor, it took Obama 1 minute and 35 seconds to sign the bill using those 22 pens.Ã¢â¬â¹President Lyndon Johnson used 72 pens when he signed the landmark Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
The purpose of a college education - Essay Example on acts as a supplier for vocational training and credentialing services), the purpose of college education is to advance economicsÃ¢â¬â¢ skills and knowledge. In addition, knowledge is among the important things a student should achieve from college education. Students should have a feeling that, college education gives them something apart from a diploma or a degree-whether it means giving them a job offer, technical skills, or a greater understanding about the world. College education should also serve as a tool for preparing students for the new economy. College education should also aim at changing students in a form that portrays significant improvements in their lives (Conrad and Laura 34). This essay aims at outlining what students should be seeking when they enroll to pursue college education. Notably, public and private higher education institutions globally are facing unprecedented challenges due to the large number of issues including the value of degrees offered in a college, scrutiny over student completion and access, and student aid support. Generally, the main purpose of college education is to disseminate and create knowledge about the world and the students themselves (Conrad and Laura 34). It is also a purpose of college education to create a higher order communicative and cognitive skills in students, such as offering them the ability to reason and think logically. After completion of higher education, graduates should come out with other skills such as motivation to pose challenges on the status quo, as well as the capacity to create sophisticated values. However, the current society view colleges as a training ground where students join to advance their professional and vocational skills. This agenda often creates tension between these two notions: college e ducation is purposely for public good and college education is purposely for private good (Conrad and Laura 37). Due to this tension, universities and colleges have increasingly become
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Plato's Republic and His Theories About Philosopher Rulers - Essay Example In this book, Plato claims that the best way to avoid abuses of power, and thereby avoid some of the worst problems of political life, is to concentrate power in the hands of the wise - philosopher-rulers. There are several reasons that make Plato think that concentrating power in the hands of philosopher-rulers will eliminate abuse of power. In this book, Plato ignores the power of justice and makes philosophy the subject of inquiry. He thinks that the power of a state should be concentrated on philosopher-rulers because of the nature of philosophers. He mentions the gifts of a true philosopher as courage, good memory and quickness. Such people have natural reasonableness or inherent goodness which other people can use to get good things even as they grow old (IDPH 354). According to Plato, the minds of philosophers always love the type of knowledge that reveals to them the external nature that does not differ from corruption and generation (IDPH344). This means philosopher-rulers a re in a position to make a quick detection of corrupt deals and corrupt individuals. Plato further explains that philosophers are lovers of all true being and therefore truthfulness is part of them. They are not willing to renounce others whether they are great or small, more honorable or less honorable. This means that philosopher-rulers stand for the truth in everything. This includes those issues that benefit them personally and those that may not benefit them directly or at all. This also includes truth in the smallest matters which many rulers tend to cover up. Even though such actions may not affect the citizens directly, the truth remains that it is abuse of power. They are therefore more likely to demand for openness and transparency in all actions that affect the larger population just to ensure that the highest levels of truth are maintained. Plato explains that because of their truthfulness, philosopher-rulers detest falsehood and will never receive in their mind falsehoo d intentionally. He goes further to describe truthfulness as the object of affection of philosophers. This is seen where he argues that truthfulness must be affirmed by philosophers. He says of them, Ã¢â¬Å"must be affirmed: for he whose nature is amorous of anything cannot help loving all that belongs or is akin to the object of his affectionsÃ¢â¬ (IDPH 344). To make it more convincing, Plato argues that there is nothing that is akin to wisdom as truth. His fellow philosopher Glaucon confirms the same as he states that someone cannot be a lover of wisdom and at the same time, a lover of falsehood. This is to say, wise people are lovers of truth and therefore, they are never lovers of falsehood. These are evident in philosopher-rulers. They would be the best watchdogs, condemners and stoppers of actions that that find their roots in falsehood like corruption and related actions like stealing. Plato ascribes the quality of being ambitious and loving ambitions to philosophers. Havi ng rulers who love ambition can mean nothing better than elimination of every action and person who kills fruits of ambition in the national. Generally, philosopher-rulers have zero tolerance to self-centered leaders who are after heaping part of the national resources for themselves. according to Plato, philosophers are lovers of learning. Plato explains that a true lover of learning must desire the truth right from their earliest youth (IDPH
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Individual Person Essay 1.1 Person centred is about providing care and support that is centred or focused on the individual and their needs. We are all individual and just because two people might have the same medical condition, for eg.Dementia, it does not mean that they require the same care and support. As a care worker I need to understand what the values are. There are eight person centred values: individuality rights choice independency dignity respect partneship equal opportunities I need to listen to S/U, they know themselves best, even if disagree, the care plan is theirs unless the capasity to understand is diminished and then advice must be sought from other person involved in an S/UÃ¢â¬Ës support plan,even legal advice should be sought in some ases. 1.2Ã Explain why person centred values must influence all aspects of social care work. The why is because it is embedded in social policy and legislation eg Putting People First, Valuing People Now and the Essential Standards. 1.3Ã Explain how person centred values should influence all aspects of social care work ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to respect the rights of the individual to be at the centre of their own care. This means that workers must focus on what the individual wants and how they want it to be provided. 1.2/1.3 vvv Person-centred care values must influence all aspects of health and social care work. Health and social care should be based on person-centred values, and should be individualised as this is a law requirement (Human Rights Act 1998, Health and Social care Act 2012, Codes of practice for Social Care Workers, etc). If person-centre values that underpin all work in the health and social care sector are followed as they should be then all individuals should feel that and health and social workers ensure that: Ã¢â¬ ¢ the individual is supported in accessing their rights Ã¢â¬ ¢ the individual is treated has an individual Ã¢â¬ ¢ the individual is supported to exercise choice Ã¢â¬ ¢ ensure the individual have privacy if they want it Ã¢â¬ ¢ support the individual to be as independent as possible Ã¢â¬ ¢ treat all individuals with dignity and respect To ensure the above is followed will influence all aspect of health and social care it is important to ensure that all individuals are treated as such and person- centred care should ensure this.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Conquest in Heart of Darkness Ã Ã¢â¬Å" The conquest of the earth, which mostly means the taking it away from those who have a different complexion or slightly flatter noses than ourselves, is not a pretty thing when you look into it too much.Ã¢â¬ (Conrad 65)Ã So stated Marlow as though this was his justification for ravaging the Congo in his search for ivory.Ã Joseph ConradÃ¢â¬â¢s Heart of Darkness shows the disparity between the European ideal of civilization and the reality of it as is evidenced by the domination, torture, exploitation and dehumanization of the African population.Ã Heart of Darkness is indicative of the evil and greed in humanity as personified by Kurtz and Marlow. These emissaries of light are shown to be crude, sordid and violent.Ã They had no regard for the destruction of AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s natural environment, wantonly destroying hills in a feeble attempt to establish a railway, Ã¢â¬Å"No change appeared on the face of the rock....the cliff was not in the way or anything; but this objectless blasting was all the work going on.Ã¢â¬ (Conrad 76)Ã This statement reveals the real motive for venturing into the Congo which was not to bring a better, more civilized lifestyle to the poor, underprivileged Africans; but to satisfy their lust for power. Ã¢â¬Å"It was just robbery with violence, aggravated murder on a great scale, and men going at it blind - as is very proper for those who tackle a darkness.Ã¢â¬ (Conrad 65) Just as Victor Frankenstein in the novel Frankenstein created a monster that was a manifestation of his inner turmoil and demons, so too Kurtz and MarlowÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into Africa is an unveiling of their inner darkness which we are all afraid to face.Ã Like Grenouille, in Perfume and Victor Frankenstein, Kurtz sought power, adoration and godlike status both among his European counterparts and the native Africans.Ã Just as Grenouille bottled and collected special fragrances so too Kurtz collected human heads displaying them around his hut as trophies.Ã KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into Africa, as well as his inner journey, can be likened to GrenouilleÃ¢â¬â¢s hibernation in the cave for seven years or VictorÃ¢â¬â¢s search for his monster across the icy slopes.Ã During this period each individual underwent a transformation and a realization of the horrors they have created. KurtzÃ¢â¬â¢s final words Ã¢â¬Å"The horror! The horror!Ã¢â¬ are comparable to Victor fleeing the scene when faced with the manifestation of his handiwork.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Discuss the relative merits of top-down and bottom-up approaches to the diffusion of renewable energy technologies. Ã¢â¬ Word count: 1300 Introduction The question of whether an Initiative Is considered top-down or bottom-up Is a question of perspective, so a local council Annihilative can be viewed as a bottom up If you view It from a central government perspective, whereas you could view It as top down If you were one of the residents.Diffusion follows the innovation phase, and is all about uptake of new products by consumers, how new products enter the market and spread across. Therefore, diffusion is a measure of how successfully a new product has spread through society. In his book Ã¢â¬ËDiffusion of Innovations' ref) Everett Rogers espouses that there are four mall elements that Influence the spread of a new Idea: the innovation Itself, communication channels, time, and a social system.In order to self-sustain, the Innovation must be widely adopted. The diffusion of Innovati ons according to Rogers. With successive groups of consumers adopting the new technology (shown in blue), its market share (yellow) will eventually reach the saturation level. Diffusion doesn't happen by itself, as it squires element of the marketing mix: product price place promotion. Process physical evidence properties pleasure people. ND Rogers' criteria for diffusion: relative advantage (offering a competitive advantage) complexity (being easy to use) compatibility (matching existing products) Absorbability (seeing the product in use) Tractability (trying the product out) Diffusion is also significantly affected by such factors as the efforts companies and organizations put into achieving those marketing mix elements and criteria for diffusion: government Initiatives aimed at Influencing the take up of new cosmologies (top-down, technology push); and the characteristics of the consumers In that market place.In the conventional depictions of consumer responses to products, consu mers are seen as passive Ã¢â¬â simply selecting from what Is on offer. However, some consumers are becoming more selective and are concerned about accordingly In his book Ã¢â¬ËEnabling Innovation', Boor Outwitted describes innovation as involving a Darwinian process of selection. New ideas are tested and tried, but adopted only if they are seen as valuable by consumers (*ref) Top down *See Ã¢â¬Å"what makes renewable energy work. UDFÃ¢â¬ in 30TH folder Any technology signed to be used by society on the macro level (larger scale) needs to be integrated into existing technical and social structures. This means that these structures must be adapted to support an efficient use of the technology. The task of managing this adaptation requires the finance and support of governments.Key elements of technology support systems for renewable energy systems are: Public awareness and acceptance Qualification of everyone that interacts with the system (Installation, Maintenance and Operat ion) Quality control: every new technology goes through a number of iterations until reliable and efficient operation is achieved. If products entering the market do not meet a minimum standard confidence will be affected and diffusion may be prematurely halted. Organizational infrastructures supporting the technology must be in place to guarantee that a deficient device can be repaired quickly, and that spare parts are available.Logistical infrastructures are in place to provide fuels (in the case of Biomass) efficiently and in sufficient quantities Ã¢â¬â this may require the use of financial incentives for farmers to switch to alternative crops to support the technology. Development of standards regarding the renewable technology and fuels seed by them Ã¢â¬â this will encourage more manufacturers to enter the market thus driving performance up, and costs down, enabling further diffusion. Qualification of those indirectly confronted by the technology Ã¢â¬â architects, plan ners, public decision makers.They have special interests and create new markets with their purchasing choices. They influence the market in a bottom-up way.. Level 5 developer consumers. They develop new or modified products to meet their needs or concerns. They become more proactive in a bottom-up way in terms of technological innovation, and sometimes operate in niche markets. Level 6 Consumer innovators. Consumer initiatives lead to success and diffusion. The products transcend the niche markets created by these proactive consumers, and these products and the enterprises that have created them may become part of the mainstream. These consumers change the market and the products, and these changes may become part of the new order.At each successive level in this list, the influence of businesses on innovation and effusion decreases, as consumer influence and involvement increases. However, in all categories, business involvement is still strong and ultimately, at level 6, any succ essful products emerging from the bottom-up process are likely to be taken up by conventional companies. Ã¢â¬ËThe levels of consumer involvement shown above apply to individual consumers and small grass-roots user groups. However, these are not the only sources of external influence on the rate of technological development and diffusion. Consumers can also be part of wider consumer organizations and environmental pressure groups. Placements through the lobbying power and public influence of large numbers of members. For example, green groups may oppose nuclear power and support solar power. Clearly, given the involvement of grass-roots activists, this is a bottom-up approach, although some pressure groups have national and international roles and can be major players in the high-level political processes. Ã¢â¬Ë The DVD includes illustrative examples which are relevant to your discussion on the relative merits of each aspect of the top-down and bottom-up approaches. They include the Hector Housing project, the Austrian DID solar case study, SamÃ'â, Local generation in Waking etc. Ochs your attention to the good aspects of each approach. Think about such things as where these approaches might be best suited (and examples thereof), and also how whether they are mutually exclusive. Argue the case for and against various strategies for supporting diffusion for specific technologies or programmers. Ã¢â¬â Identify in general terms the key factors likely to influence the successful diffusion of new technological developments Ã¢â¬â Assess the relative merits of top-down and bottom-up approaches to diffusion and to the wider innovation process. Http://nun. Du/publications/articles/policy-innovation-for-technology-diffusion- Japanese-renewable-energy. HTML Ã¢â¬â Bottom up driving top-down: Ã¢â¬Å"Prior to the adoption of RPR, there were vociferous calls from the civil society requesting that the government introduce another policy model instead. The Feed-i n Tariff (FIT) is a policy generally proven to be successful in the member states of the European UnionÃ¢â¬ Learning outcome 1 . 1: The way in which market, environmental and economic factors influence the consumer take-up (diffusion) of new products. Ã¢â¬â Block 4, page : key points of section 1 Block 4, page : key points of section 2 http://www. Warwick. AC. UK/face/cross_face/low_carbon/conference/programmer/low- carbon_conference_king_Wang_final_comma. PDF Diffusion theory is a collection of concepts that attempt to explain how new ideas, products or practices are taken up into use by domestic, commercial and industrial consumers.According to Everett Rogers (1983), a leading theoretician, diffusion is the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system' leading to its subsequent adoption into widespread use. Rogers identifies five factors that influence diffusion. He suggests the ease and rate performan ce and/or cost terms, compared with existing products compatibility Ã¢â¬â with existing products, and with consumers' values and lifestyles complexity Ã¢â¬â by contrast, he argues that complexity is a negative attribute absorbability Ã¢â¬â seeing it in action, including seeing how others get on using it Tractability Ã¢â¬â availability for personally checking out its merits.In addition, perceived risk or danger in use could be added to the list as another potential disincentive. Consumers have increasingly become active in making complaints about the quality of products and services. In parallel, and more positively, consumers increasingly seem to be willing to put effort into searching for what they want. This is not to do simply with price. With a generally more affluent population, the focus is increasingly on performance and quality as well as value. Block 4, pig 15 For the present, it should simply be noticed that not all of this enhanced consumer selectivity is rela ted to self-interested personal utility concerns such as performance, quality or technical advantages, or even a desire for more things.Some consumers have adopted wider ethical stances in relation to what they buy and what they will tot buy, and sometimes, how much they will buy. In practice, only a few people opt for frugal denial, but many more are concerned about the sheer volume of their personal consumption and may seek to cut back on things they feel are frivolous or in some way undesirable. According to research for the Co-operative Banks Ethical Purchasing Index, in the period from 1999 to 2002, 52 per cent of I-J consumers boycotted at least one product because they disapproved of the practices of the company concerned. It was estimated that E. 6 billion had been lost by firms in 2002 due to consumers switching brands on ethical grounds.A survey in 2004 of potential consumer attitudes to companies that did not comply with the new environmental legislation requiring compani es to reduce carbon dioxide emissions -introduced under the EX. Emissions trading scheme(Elk TEST) Ã¢â¬â found that consumers would vote with their feet if companies failed to comply with this new green legislation. One in three respondents to the survey said they would switch brand allegiance on environmental grounds if a company they regularly buy goods and services from failed to comply (Illogical, 2004). Moreover, consumer responses are not simply negative Ã¢â¬â some consumers will costively select products which comply with environmental legislation or which are marketed as, for example, involving fair trading with producers in developing countries, or which avoid testing on animals.Block 4, pig 16 environmental sensitivities that influence their purchasing decisions; some companies have responded to this new market; and the government seems keen that the public should do more, particularly in relation to selecting environmentally appropriate products. Learning outcome 1. 2: The role of consumers in supporting new product lines, resisting unwanted options and, on occasion, stimulating the production of, or even actually developing, desired products and services. Ã¢â¬â Block 4, page : key points of section 1 Block 4, page : Key points of section 2 Block 4, page : key points of section 4 Block 4, page : Key points of Section 5 Block 4, page : key points of section 6 Learning outcome 1. : The difference between top-down and bottom-up approaches to innovation and diffusion and the potential role of consumers and users in aiding diffusion and innovation. Block 4, page : key points of section 1 Block 4, page : key points of section 5 (Bottom -up) Block 4, page : key points of Section 6 (Bottom-up) Block 4, page : key points of Section 7 (Top-down) Learning outcome 1. 4: Consumer involvement with innovation and diffusion in the renewable energy sector and the problems that such activity may come up against. Block 4, : key points of section 1 Block 4, pa ge : key points of Section 2 Block 4, page : Impact on technology diffusion Block 4, page : key points of section 3 : key points of section 5 page page Block 4, page Consumer involvement classification.I have identified six levels of consumer involvement: At each successive level in this list, the influence of businesses on innovation and diffusion decreases, as consumer influence and involvement increases. However, in all categories, business involvement is still strong and ultimately, at level 6, any successful products emerging from the bottom-up process Block 4, page Governments influence the mix of products and systems in ways often beyond the control of consumers, through regulation, taxes and other policy mechanisms. They seek to stimulate the development and diffusion of selected technologies in line with wider national or international strategic priorities. For example, based on environmental policy, governments may seek to phase out the use of coal for electricity generati on and to back wind, wave or tidal power.Clearly this sort of influence involves a top-down approach, although one moderated by democratic processes. Learning outcomes 1. 5: The role of government in influencing the direction and effectiveness of the innovation process and the strategic development of technology in the context of trying to move to the environmentally sustainable use of energy. Block 4, page : Government energy options Block 4, page : Conclusions Block 4, page : key points of section 7 Block 4, pig 10 : key points of section 8 Block 4, piggy : key points of section 9 Learning outcome 1. 10: The role of diffusion and the part played by consumers in paving to a more sustainable approach to energy use.SAA 14: It is true that most innovations are the result of efforts by companies to develop products that will sell to consumers, with governments perhaps providing support for specific lines of development deemed strategically important. However, as has been argued in this block, the diffusion process can be greatly aided if consumers and users are involved in some way. Indeed, motivated consumers and users can sometimes create markets for new areas of innovation. Even when it comes to Just responding to innovations developed by others, the social and community context is important for diffusion. Certainly diffusion may be delayed or prevented if the community opposes the innovation Ã¢â¬â as was illustrated in the case of wind power.More positively, bottom-up initiatives from the grass-roots can sometimes throw up original ideas that can be diffused widely. Indeed, in some sectors this can be a major source of innovation in terms of new product development, as well as aiding Block 4, pig 23 Diffusion is the final stage of the innovation process, and is concerned with the take-up of new products by consumers. The rate of diffusion at any one time depends on how consumers react to new products. Some will adopt them quickly, most others will take the ir time, and a few will remain hesitant until there is no other option. In the conventional depictions of consumer responses to products, consumers are seen as passive Ã¢â¬â simply selecting from what is on offer.However, some consumers are becoming more selective and some are concerned about ethical, social and environmental issues and are adjusting their purchasing choices accordingly. A bottom-up grass-roots approach to innovation may offer some advantages over a top-down approach, by ensuring involvement of users in both reduce development and diffusion. A technology Ã¢â¬Å"push,Ã¢â¬ also known as top down transfer, is diffusion from higher levels of authority to lower levels. An example of Ã¢â¬Å"pushÃ¢â¬ is Federal efforts at technology transfer through legislation, regulation, or policy. Entrepreneurs and other individuals or organizations whose objectives are to implement a technology typically Ã¢â¬Å"pushÃ¢â¬ in order to do so. In marketing terms, the client is Ã¢â¬Å"soldÃ¢â¬ the technology.A transfer Ã¢â¬Å"pullÃ¢â¬ is Just the opposite, a bottom-up form of diffusion. The client demands the technology. The search for innovation moves up from the lower levels f an organization until it is accepted or addressed and resolved by higher authorities. Two systems exist for diffusion of innovation: centralized or decentralized. Decision making in centralized systems is concentrated at a high level, while decentralized systems feature wide sharing of power within the diffusion network. In centralized systems diffusion is vertical Ã¢â¬â from the top down, as innovations emerge from formal R&D projects. Centralized systems favor technology push, where Ã¢â¬Å"needsÃ¢â¬ are defined at a high level.Innovations which cannot be easily modified, or re-invented, re best diffused using a centralized system. Decentralized systems use horizontal diffusion, as local experimentation is often the innovation source and use technology pull, where need s are defined locally. Innovations which lend themselves to modification are best diffused by a decentralized approach because such an approach allows local adaptation of innovations to reflect local needs. There are, as a general rule, two types of projects. Projects following top-down procedures where large projects are conceived and announced by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information or Ministry of Environment. Those commissioned projects are rewarded with large amount of money.The second type of project concerns smaller ones and follows a bottom-up approach with three different types of grants: grants for public research (PRO or Universities), SEEM projects and projects supported by the EX. Framework programmer. Http://sustainabledevelopment. UN. Org/content/documents/Kandahar. PDF top down monitoring and audit process to ensure that the quality standards are strictly met and the Company policies and procedures are being properly followed Top-down Definition Ã¢â¬â A development or change initiated and managed from above by overspent or companies: the conventional approach macroeconomic measures Block 4, pig 82 governments can ensure the successful development and spread of strategically selected technologies.This will include a look at new technology development as well as at diffusion because the successful diffusion of new products frequently rests on how well those products have been developed. For example, the UK government's 2003 innovation review identified environmental issues, and the need for improved, lower impact products and services, as a key driver for future innovation. The review suggested that some of the new developments would be specific environmental goods and services, such as technologies to minimize pollutants or promote resource efficiency, or renewable energy sources Block 4, pig 86 Nevertheless, in order to achieve its aim of increasing the contribution from renewable, the I-J government found it necessary to provi de support to enable the newly emerging technologies to enter the marketplace.New technologies usually face a challenge in trying to get established in markets dominated by the existing range of products, and this was clearly a problem for renewable faced with the nominate fossil fuel and nuclear industries. So the government decided to provide extra support to stimulate diffusion, by adjusting the market. As noted earlier, this is sometimes called market ennoblement Ã¢â¬â enabling key new technologies to be taken up by the market. Block 4, pig 90 By contrast, the subsidy systems for wind projects in Germany, Denmark and elsewhere meant they could make use of locations with much lower wind speeds Ã¢â¬â indeed they often had little choice because, for example, Denmark is mostly flat and wind speeds there and in Germany are generally much lower than in the I-J. Block 4, pig 93
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Following the times of the middle 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s Abstract Expressionism sparked an interest for Andy Warhol, and during the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s Andy, and Roy Lichtenstein created a new realism of America. This new realism was called Pop Art which expressed daily life in America as it was being lived. Warhol was born in 1928 as Andy Warhola, he grew up with a curiosity in commercials, and after a very successful life he became the main figure associated with Pop Art. His art is some of the most well known art of all time, and he is considered one of the best artists of all time, his greatest painting was done on canvas in 1963 called the Eight Elvises and is worth one hundred million dollars, which this amount is in the likes of Jackson Pollock, and Pablo PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s work. Andy Warhol has many accomplishments during his life, and he was inspired by many different people and things. His talent led him to many opportunities including movies and artwork. Growing up Warhol was diagnosed with chorea which is a disease of the nervous system that causes movements that are involuntary. This disease is correlated with scarlet fever, causing Andy to grow up primarily bed-ridden, and this is where he listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars which helped him gain his own personality and attributes. After his struggle he spent his time at Carnegie School of Fine Arts Institute in Pittsburgh, he studied hard and showed his artistic capability early while he studied commercial art. Warhol was quickly offered a position in New York drawing advertisements for a shoe company. This is where his whimsical colors started to be portrayed in his drawings of those shoes. While working with the shoe company he was recruited to illustrate the vinyl album covers for band by record labels who at the time were booming with musical talent. In 1952, while Warhol was doing shoe art he was also doing his own art on the side. He wanted to show his early work to the public, so after pitching his idea he got his first art show in New York at the Hugo Gallery. All of his works during these times are very interesting to me, because he used his art to represented life as it was in America every day. Warhol took these everyday things as simple as CampbellÃ¢â¬â¢s soup cans, or Coke Cans and turned them into monumental items in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s life. These items sell over 3 million products a day; these companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ should be thanking Andy for making their business boom Worldwide. Warhol stated Ã¢â¬Å"You can be watching TV and see Coca-Cola, and you know that the President drinks Coca-Cola, Liz Taylor drinks Coca-cola, and just think, you can drink Coca-Cola, tooÃ¢â¬ (Art). This art of the soups and cokes form analytic lines the way he stacks cans precisely and mathematically as he draws, which takes extreme precision and measurement on his part to make sure that everything is straight and perfect. After these paintings were produced, Warhol began getting very well known in the New York art world. This art led him to moving on to what was called Ã¢â¬Å"The FactoryÃ¢â¬ where many creative minds ranging from actors, writers, musicians, and other artists would drop by and lend their inspiration. The FactoryÃ¢â¬ is where Andy let his ability shine, he decided to get rid of a difference between high and low art, and make known that art can be found anywhere. High art being art that has history and low art being art that has no history, but Andy wanted to clear high and low all together. Warhol liked the factory because it had a crazy atmosphere that fit his life style. He produced all of his work during the time at factory while he was working there. Including in 1963 piece that had the most impact on me which was the silkscreen painting Eight Elvises because the unusual thing about this silkscreen is that it is unique. Warhol had many other silkscreenÃ¢â¬â¢s that were produced sometimes in the hundreds, and Warhol only made one Eight Elvises. This 12 ft canvas shows from left to right Elvis in cowboy attire with his gun drawn in his right hand with seven repeat images on the left of his body finishing off with a full body view with left hand in sight as his body fades away. Warhol was known as a primary visual artist and this art is an example of that. Silkscreen is a stencil method of printmaking in which a design is imposed on a screen of silk or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance, and ink is forced through the mesh onto the printing surface. Warhol did not bother to clean up the imperfections of the print including slips of the screen, uneven inkings of the roller, and general graininess. I believe that this artwork and the artists represent America because Warhol used American icons such as items and faces to secure a place for these in history. For these reasons this is why I have chosen this artwork. I like that he used a popular person Elvis and put his pop art twist on him turning him into eight western Elvises ready to draw his weapon, I think this means that he is a dependable hero for America to lean on. Warhol uses high and low art through his artwork giving it a desirable product. During the sixties his art was very distinct and powerful which in turn Warhol gained mass popularity, and people that had known him had been driven away from him due to his success. In 1968 a woman that worked for Warhol on occasion found him and shot him in the stomach, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"He had to much control over my lifeÃ¢â¬ (Art). He survived the gunshot, but was injured horribly and was required to wear a bandage on his stomach for the rest of his life. After this incident Warhol returned to the art world creating some more of my favorite art because of the way that he uses colors on the faces of American icons such as Marilyn Monroe, Mr. and Mrs. JFK, even Jimmy Carter, Mick Jagger, and Elvis. After the assassination attempt he also began publishing a magazine called Ã¢â¬Å"InterviewÃ¢â¬ which is still published today. This magazine was dubbed as Ã¢â¬Å"The Crystal Ball of Pop (Interview. com) due to WarholÃ¢â¬â¢s style of running the magazine, Andy would take pictures of famous people or items and by adding his color schemes he would make the entire magazine look like his art. A portion of this magazine is still dedicated to AndyÃ¢â¬â¢s style of work. His hard work ethic led him to many art shows getting his work extensively in museums and galleries around the world until he died during a gall bladder procedure that was deemed a safe procedure. His work of almost forty years has secured his position as one of the most influential talents of all time, and one of the greatest artists in the world. Warhol grew up with tough conditions leading to his confused life and very awkward personality type, these factors contributed to his choice of being a homosexual and his ambition of wanting to only make rich people richer by putting their pictures in the art world for more people to look at this is why he did so many self portraits. He wanted everyone to remember what he did and to this day I would say he made a big impact.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
Bi Bi Bilingual Education The website d Ã¢â¬Å"Bilingual Education: A critiqueÃ¢â¬ , by Peter J. Duignan, is an educational site that evaluates the evolution of bilingual education since the Civil Right Act of 1968 and Bilingual Education Act of 1968. Its purpose is therefore to educate. The author of has analyzed the practice of bilingual education by giving its background arguments for and against it, and a constructive approach of multicultural as well as multilingual education. In addition, Duignan has considered the appropriateness of bilingual education based on established claims and profiled Latinos. Several bilingual education advocates have been identified and their opinions discussed (Duignan). Hoover Institution press website associates itself with this publication by Duignan. It provides a summary of Ã¢â¬Å"Bilingual Education: A critiqueÃ¢â¬ , which indicates the development of bilingual education (Duignan). Peter J. Duignan, a prolific writer, is a senior member at the H oover Institution. Duignan has a masters and doctoral degrees in history from Stanford University. He is an associate of the Stanford University African Studies Committee and the Council of European Studies (Duignan). Duignan is also a member of African Studies Association, Association of Research Libraries, East Studies Association, American History Association, and Royal Historical Society, among others. Duignan has comprehensive publications on relative colonial history, immigration, African bibliography and documentation, modern European history, U.S. foreign policy, Atlantic Alliance, as well as Hispanics in the United States. DuignanÃ¢â¬â¢s current publications include Bilingual Education: A Critique, The Spanish Speakers in the United States: A History, NATO: Its Past, Present and Future as well as African and the World. Peter J. Duignan has received several awards, which include the Rockefeller Foundation award, international fellowship, Guggenheim fellowship, and Ford for eign area fellowship to Africa (Duignan). The website is funded by the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. The article by Duignan is under the monographs of Hoover InstitutionÃ¢â¬â¢s publications. Furthermore, the articleÃ¢â¬â¢s copyright is owned by the Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University. I believe that the information contained in the publication is correct considering the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s credentials. Duignan provides precise details of bilingual education while referencing the instance of their occurrence. Additionally, Duignan has based his work on other accredited findings as well as publications (Duignan).Work CitedDuignan, Peter J. "Bilingual Education: A Critique." 1998. . 27 October 2011.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
5 Business Jobs You Can Do Without a Business Degree There are lots of good reasons to attend business school, but if you havent gotten that far yet (or dont plan to), there are still lots of business jobs that you could get with just a high school diploma. Most of these jobs are entry-level positions (you wont start out as a manager), but they pay a living wage and could provide you with valuable career development resources. For example, you could receive on-the-job training that could help you improve your communication skills or master software programs. You might even acquire special knowledge in a concentrated area like accounting, banking, or insurance. You may also be able to meet important business contacts or mentors that could help you advance your career later on. An entry-level business job can also give you the experience you need to successfully apply to an undergraduate business degree program. Although most programs at the undergraduate level do not require work experience, it could still help to strengthen your application in several ways. To start with, youll have worked with a supervisor who can give you a recommendation letter that highlights your work ethic or achievements. If your entry-level job offers opportunities to take on a leadership role, youll be able to gain valuable leadership experience, something that is always important to admissions committees who are looking for candidates who are potential leaders.Ã In this article, were going to take a look at five different business jobs you can get without a business degree. These jobs require just a high school diploma or the equivalent and could really help you advance your career or education in banking, insurance, accounting, and business fields. Bank Teller Bank tellers work for banks, credit unions, and other financial institutions. Some of the duties they perform include processing cash or check deposits, cashing checks, making change, collecting bank payments (like car or mortgage payments), and exchanging foreign currency. Counting money is a big aspect of this job. Staying organized and keeping accurate records of every financial transaction is also important. A degree is almost never required to become a bank teller. Most tellers can get hired with just a high school diploma. However, on-the-job training is almost always required to learn how to use the banks software. With enough work experience, entry-level tellers can move up to more advanced positions like a head teller. Some bank tellers also go on to become loan officers, loan underwriters, or loan collectors. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that median annual wages for bank tellers exceed $26,000. Bill Collector Nearly every industry employs bill collectors. Bill collectors, also known as account collectors, are responsible for collecting payments on due or overdue bills. They use internet and database information to locate debtors and then contact debtors, typically via phone or mail, to request payment. Bill collectors spend most of their time answering debtor questions about contracts and negotiating payment plans or settlements. They may also be responsible for following up on negotiated resolutions to ensure that the debtor pays as agreed. Most employers are willing to hire bill collectors who have just a high school diploma, but computer skills can increase your chances of getting hired. Bill collectors must follow state and federal laws related to debt collection (such as the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act), so on-the-job training is typically required to ensure compliance. Most bill collectors are employed by professional, scientific, and technical service industries. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that median annual wages for bill collectors exceed $34,000. Administrative Assistant Administrative assistants, also known as secretaries, support the supervisor or staff of a business office by answering phones, taking messages, scheduling appointments, preparing business documents (like memos, reports, or invoices), filing documents, and performing other clerical tasks. In large companies, they sometimes work in a specific department, such as marketing, public relations, human resources, or logistics. Administrative assistants that report directly to an executive are often known as executive assistants. Their duties are usually more complex and may involve creating reports, scheduling staff meetings, preparing presentations, conducting research, or handling sensitive documents.Ã Most administrative assistants do not start out as executive assistants, but instead, move up to this position after acquiring a few years of work experience. The typical administrative assistant position requires just a high school diploma. Having basic computer skills, such as familiarity with software applications (like Microsoft Word or Excel), can increase your chances of securing employment. Many employers provide some type of on-the-job training to help new employees learn administrative procedures or industry-specific terminology. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that median annual wages for administrative assistants exceed $35,000.Ã Insurance Clerk Insurance clerks, also known as insurance claims clerks or insurance policy processing clerks, work for insurance agencies or individual insurance agents. Their primary responsibilities include processing insurance applications or insurance claims. This may involve communicating with insurance clients, either in person and over the phone or in writing via mail or email. Insurance clerks may also be tasked with answering phones, taking messages, answering client questions, responding to client concerns, or recording cancellations. In some offices, insurance clerks may even be responsible for processing insurance payments or keeping financial records. Unlike insurance agents, insurance clerks do not need to be licensed. A high school diploma is typically all that is required to earn a position as an insurance clerk. Good communication skills are helpful in securing employment. Most insurance agencies offer some form of on-the-job training to help familiarize new clerks with insurance industry terms and administrative procedures. With enough experience, an insurance clerk could pass the required exam to earn a state license to sell insurance. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that median annual wages for insurance clerks exceed $37,000. Bookkeeper Bookkeepers use bookkeeping or accounting software to record financial transactions (i.e. money coming in and money going out). They commonly prepare financial statements like balance sheets or income statements. Some bookkeepers have special duties beyond keeping a general ledger. For example, they may be responsible for processing a companys invoices or payroll or preparing and tracking bank deposits.Ã Bookkeepers work with numbers every day, so they must be good with basic math (like adding, subtracting, multiplying, or dividing). Some employers prefer job candidates who have completed finance courses or bookkeeping certificate programs, but many are willing to hire candidates who have just a high school diploma. If on-the-job training is provided, it typically involves learning how to use a specific software program or mastering industry-specific skills like double-entry bookkeeping. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reports that median annual wages for bookkeepers exceed $37,000.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Causes of PM2.5 in China - Research Proposal Example This paper illustrates that being a modestly developed nation from earlier times, China went into an active phase of economic expansion from the 1970s and emerged as one of the prominent world economies by the turn of the century. Further aided by international trade agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ removal of trade barriers, China brought down its Ã¢â¬Å"iron curtainÃ¢â¬ thereby facilitating both inward and outward flow of investments. Ã¢â¬Å"Nowadays China is one of the worlds top exporters and is attracting record amounts of foreign investment. In turn, it is investing billions of dollars abroadÃ¢â¬ . Still being a socialist market economy, China has become the second largest economy in terms of nominal GDP, and the fastest-growing economy achieving growth rates of over 10 percent for the past three decades. Ã¢â¬Å"With a population of 1.3 billion, China recently became the second largest economy and is increasingly playing an important and influential role in the global economyÃ¢â¬ . This optimal economic growth has led to a number of benefits for its people and the nation as a whole including elevated lifestyle, increased purchasing power, development of finest infrastructures, and many more. However, this economic ascendance has also caused a number of challenges, with environmental degradation and the resultant health issues being the prominent one. ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is mainly fuelled by its manufacturing sector, but this sector primarily emits a number of dangerous materials affecting the environment. Furthermore, ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s fast-growing economy has accentuated its energy demand, with environmentally-destructive coal being used to meet the rising demands. So, increased economic activity has gravely affected the natural environment causing a number of health problems to the Chinese people including life-threatening diseases such as cancers, heart diseases, respiratory problems, and others. Treating these health issues drain the exchequerÃ¢â¬â¢s money t hereby in a way sizably affecting or even nullifying the economic growth. More than this issue, the basic aspect of any economic growth is that it should elevate and safeguard peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives and not be a detriment.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Perspectives of Early Psychology - Essay Example Behaviorists, recently discounted as questionable, do not account for the inner workings of the mind, as behaviorists believe that they are beyond the realm of understanding. Cognitive theorists, however, look deeper into the mind to attempt to discover the reasoning behind our actions. Cognitive theory had its basis in the Gestalt psychology of Wertheimer, Khler, and Koffka (Hufnus, n.d.). However, Cognitive theory diverges from Gestalt in that it promotes the idea that solutions to problems are much like formulas. Gestalt views the whole problem. Cognitive sees the independent parts. The Cognitive process goes through a series of steps that are not consciously understood by the subject. In this way Gestalt and Cognitive are similar. It is somewhat like having an automobile. Gestalt knows we can get from point A to point B by operating the car. However, Cognitive looks inside the workings of the car to determine how it goes from point A to point B. Both Gestalt and Cognitive rely on the study of the mind, but Cognitive attempts to look deeper and more scientifically into the thought process. Sociocultural psychology is a relatively recent entry in the realm of psychology, though may have the greater influence on our understanding of behavior and pro