Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Development of Online Grading System Essay

Introduction The logistical problems associated with distributing, collecting, grading, and returning assignments and the difficulties in ensuring fairness and consistency in grading tend to increase non-linearly with the number of students enrolled in a class. This is especially true in project based design courses where evaluation is subjective, deliverables are team-based, and the philosophies and expectations of course faculty members may vary substantially. Online course management programs can be very helpful in the dissemination of information and the collection of grades in very large courses like those offered as part of the freshman core curriculum. However, the automated grading capabilities of these programs are generally limited to question banks with clearly defined right and wrong answers. More advanced computer-assisted grading systems have been developed for the assessment and grading of students. However, fully automated systems are still limited to applications with well-defined rules and objectives. Computer-assisted grading rubrics that guide the grading process and compile the final results are a more promising alternative. Our members report that using computer-assisted grading rubrics during essay grading reduced the grading time by half compared to traditional hand grading without a rubric and by two-thirds compared to hand grading with a rubric. In addition to the â€Å"reduced time in grading assignments,† and our other members notes that computer-assisted grading rubrics can lead to increased â€Å"validity and accuracy of grading – making grading more even handed,† increased feedback for students, and increased student satisfaction. Kurt and Gilbert also observed that the use of grading rubrics increased the consistency of grades across multiple graders, especially when teaching assistants were involved. The advantages of computer-assisted and web-based grading rubrics have led to the development of online tools for the assessment of student. However, these systems still do not fully address the problems of real and perceived teacher bias in grading, grade inflation, and professor pleasing. For example, 51% of respondents in a 20013 faculty survey on capstone design courses rated their perception of grading fairness as only â€Å"fair – I seldom hear complaints† and none rated their perception as a â€Å"all bias and distortion have been eliminated†. These types of concerns have led many students to prefer that design projects be evaluated by external jurors because they â€Å"want the jury process to be more objective and believe that the presence of external jurors will help achieve this†. This led San Sebastian to â€Å"to take professors out of the grading process† entirely and â€Å"replace them with professional evaluators who never meet the students,† who â€Å"don’t worry that students will punish harsh grades with poor reviews† and who have â€Å"no temptat ion to skew results in any way other than to judge the students’ work. This paper presents an online computer-assisted rubric-based grading website that was developed in conjunction with a distributed jury-based grading system to improve the fairness, consistency, and efficiency of grading in a large required first year project-based design course. This work provides a brief overview of the course, its deliverables, and the breakdown of the final grade. It discusses the design requirements, features, and implementation of the online grading system. Reactions from course faculty and staff members based on end-of-semester survey results are presented. Finally, the current limitations and future development directions of the online grading system are discussed. CHAPTER 1 Introduction Leader : Marchjohn Glorioso Members : Kurt Mallari Gilbert Cruz View as multi-pages

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Pubs in the Uk

This report intends to determine why pubs in the UK are increasingly transforming into gastro pubs. The first part of this study will review recent statistics to give an overview of the pub sector’s position in the hospitality industry, to describe the size, scope and decline of this individual sector. The second part will evaluate how macro factors have affected this industry, both in the last 10 years and currently, using PESTEL analysis. This analysis will then be used to forecast directions for the pub sector.The Palmerston, a pub turned gastro pub, will be referred to, to illustrate these findings and profitable recommendations will be made for the sector and The Palmerston Although the report focuses on pubs, statistics used represent bars and nightclubs as these are commonly perceived to be the same sector. PESTEL factors have, where possible, been analysed in separate sections even though some can be related to one another. Sector Overview Traditionally, pubs existed s olely for selling alcoholic drinks as they represented a retail dimension for breweries (Market & Business Development (MBD), 2000).This has changed to pubs focusing on other features to attract customers, such as providing more entertainment and becoming a food-led outlet. According to statistics from people 1st (2008), the pubs, bars and nightclubs sector is one of the biggest within the hospitality industry in terms of labour force size, number of enterprises and establishments and turnover (see appendix 1, 2 and 3 ). The majority of the workforce is part time and female (see appendix 4 and 5). Although a large sector, pubs are in decline.Pub closures in the UK have increased to five every day partly due to dropping beer consumption (British Beer & Pub Association (BBPA), 2008). This market has seen a constant drop over the last 30 years with only one small rise in 1988 (see appendix 6). Independent pubs are constantly adapting to keep negative impact to a minimum. As Blyth (2002 ) notes, many pubs are finding success when moving away from the traditional concept. Past PESTEL Factors Political: After the successful smoking ban in Ireland, the UK Government announced plans for a smoking ban in 2004 (http://www. forestonline. rg/output/Public-Smoking-Bans. aspx). Baker (2008) suggests a significantly higher proportion of adults were more likely to visit a smoke-free pub. However, some pubs did not agree with this so looked to change their image and concept. Economical and Sociological: A prosperous economy increased disposable income and improved standards of living. Huxley (2003: 8) highlights that â€Å"increasing number of women working and/or opting not to have children† had increased wealth. A report (Peach Factory, 2007) showed women dined out more than men and preferred casual dining formats hence a boom in such outlets.Pubs lost customers as lifestyle changes saw people spending more time in outlets serving good value food. Consequently, pubs lo oked to invest in becoming more food-led. Technological: The introduction and improvement of satellite television allowed pubs to supply entertainment at their premises, attracting more customers (MBD 2000). Some pubs were unable to adopt this as licences proved too costly resulting in loss of customers. Environmental: Climate Change Levy, energy tax introduced in 2001, encouraged pubs to introduce energy-efficient measures to reduce energy consumption.Companies that cooperated were rewarded (caterer search, 2002). Legal: Drug dealing was common in pubs as ample distractions allowed dealers to work (caterer search, 2001). Legislations, such as the Public Entertainment Licence (Drug Misuse) Act 1997, allowed licensees to prohibit drug dealing and thus improved the number of desired customers. Pubs sought to create more inviting premises. The Palmerston The Palmerston recognised changes were important so closed for refurbishment in 2003. Upon opening in 2004, the improved menu and aes thetics (including a segregated section for smokers) was an instant success. Current PESTEL FactorsPolitical: The government is trying to reduce binge drinking and alcohol-linked violence by imposing policies on pubs to display alcohol-unit levels, health warnings on drink labels and banning ‘happy hour’ promotions (Ford, 2008). Failure of cooperation will lead to legislation. Pubs may suffer with this costly process. Economical: The UK economy is currently attempting to stabilise as it faces recession. The Chancellor announced in the latest pre-budget report that duty on alcohol would be raised (Thomas 2008), creating more problems for pubs already experiencing major losses with the â€Å"above-inflationary duty increases† (BBPA 2008).Sociological: Duce (2006) suggests that pubs cannot compete with supermarkets (which are cutting prices) as more customers are buying alcohol to drink at home. Pubs have looked to increase revenue elsewhere and have led to more foc using on being food-led. Technological: As wireless technology continues to expand globally, pubs are installing wireless internet connections within the premises to compete with other outlets supplying this popular format (Walton, 2007). Environmental:A report (The Peach Factory, 2007) shows increased awareness of global issues, such as the impact of food miles on the environment, has made pubs focus on locally and organically produced food. Those providing for this trend are popular due to being perceived as supporting the local community and environment. Legal: The Smoking Ban was legalised on 1st July 2007 and, as Baker (2008) states, â€Å"has had a devastating effect on pub trade†. Many independent pubs have not been able to compete with the large pub chains that have invested in outdoor smoking areas. This is a major reason why many pubs are closing.The Palmerston: The Palmerston adjusted to the smoking ban and integrated a wireless network in 2004 so negative impact w as minimal. It focuses its services to families and promotions are food related. Although alcohol sales may be down, food sales are high. Future PESTEL Factors Political and Legal: The All-Party Parliamentary Beer Group (caterer search, 2008) advises the government to make changes to improve pubs’ viability. Suggestions have ranged from reducing the rate of beer duty to banning supermarkets from selling alcohol at minimal prices (Thomas, 2008).If the government recognises and acts on these concerns, pubs may find business improves. Economical: The hospitality industry is predicted to take 50-70% of the possible ? 1. 4b-? 2b profit from the London Olympic Games 2012, reports Thomas (2006). This may inject the economy with prosperity, if it has not by then, and provide pubs a chance to increase sales and attract visitors who want to experience UK’s national drink – beer. Sociological: The hospitality industry employed over 152,000 migrant workers at the beginning of 2008 according to Home Office figures (2008).However, Walton (2008: 7) learned â€Å"migrant workers are increasingly turning their backs on the UK hospitality industry because of the falling of the pound†. Pubs that currently employ migrant workers may implement long-term recruitment processes to attract more UK workers. Technological: Bentley (2008: 34) acknowledges there is â€Å"evidence that greener approaches to computing are moving into the mainstream†. Pubs may demand this, if made mainstream, to reduce power consumption, which would be valuable if energy costs continue to rise. Environmental:Climate change is increasing flooding in the UK and northern Europe, causing heat waves and droughts in southern Europe and Australia. As this causes major problems with harvests, food prices are more likely to rise, suggests Vaughan (2008). Pubs must find ways to absorb the rising costs. The Palmerston: The Palmerston sources its food produce locally, helping both the environment and their costs. The low staff turnover indicates it has a successful training process. Conclusion With falling beer consumption and increased tax on alcohol, pubs are closing at rapid rates.Negative media, such as binge drinking and alcohol-related violence, poses to be a real threat to pubs as policies are introduced. After a decade of prosperity, the economy is now in decline which is presenting more problems for pubs. Those that have survived have become food-led pubs as more people have been dining out due to higher disposable income from an increasingly affluent economy. Due to immense competition in the food industry, pubs have concentrated on creating traditional menus prepared to the highest-quality.To reflect this and cope with changing clientele from the smoking ban, premises have been updated to create more inviting and family-friendly surroundings. The combination of all these features, and considerable transformation, creates the present gastro pub. The Pal merston underwent all these changes and declared a successful gastro pub when it re-opened in 2004. Recommendations The pub sector is in decline and may continue because of the current economic situation. Pubs must find different ways of increasing revenue as alcohol sales plummet.This may include introducing attractive menus and hiring professional chefs to maximise its potential. Available technology for customers is essential and pubs should install their own wireless network. The Palmerston has already adapted to many macro factors that have negatively affected other pubs. However, in order for it to continue succeeding it must keep adjusting as the economy declines. Since food is one of its most popular products it must ensure this remains attractive and consistently prepared to a high standard.As food costs rise the menu should be analysed and any item that is being incorrectly sourced should be replaced by an adequate substitute, but still maintaining the quality. Families ar e one of the main targets for The Palmerston, so every care should be made on satisfying both parents and children. Re-introducing traditional board games is suggested as they typically inspire family unity. Pubs in neighbouring areas supply these games and have proved to be popular. The Palmerston could introduce affordable ‘themed evenings’ to attract the local community to congregate and socialise in a relaxing atmosphere.

Strangers on a train

Big Ben had just struck midnight when Helen and her friends joyfully burst through the doors of the Westminster Academy. ‘What an amazing concert', she cried. ‘We should definitely go and watch another one soon!' replied Tom. ‘Guys, I think we should just forget about the concert for one split second and actually think about our journey home at such a ridiculous hour!' said Sarah. ‘True, look I'll go with you Helen and Jim, you go with Sarah' said Tom. As the couple waited anxiously for the last train to approach, they silently reminisced over what had really been a well and truly, unforgettable night. After a long wait of what felt like an hour, the last train clumsily slid along the rail tracks and hesitantly pulled up to a halt at Westminster station. Its rickety doors, lethargically slid open and wickedly beckoned the two friends into its carriage of mystery. As Helen looked directly in front of her to look through the pane of glass on the other side of the carriage, she caught a glimpse of a strange looking girl sitting in between two puny but psychotic looking boys. Helen always felt uncomfortable making any form of eye contact with strangers as she had heard of various incidents concerning people in the same situation as her. However, it was as if some strong wave of curiosity was encouraging her face to keep on studying these characters and as she did this, she noticed the vibrant blue veins ridged into the girl's skin and the trembling hands of the boys. All through this, the girl stayed unmoving. ‘Tom look over to the other side but try to make it as discreet as possible', Helen said to her friend. ‘You mean that dodgy looking bunch opposite us yeah?' he replied. ‘Yeah, they're really starting to creep me out; please do something!' ‘Ok,right I've got a plan.' he said, ‘Now, Helen listen to me very carefully, when I get off at my stop, come with me and pretend that it's also your stop and just try and cleverly change carriages ok?' When the train ground to a halt at Paddington station, the two got off and indeed executed the plan of action. ‘Are you sure you're going to be alright Helen?' Tom worriedly gasped, ‘you can always come back to mine and then I'll drive you back home instead.' ‘Oh come on Tom, when exactly are you going to stop treating me like a baby and realize that I'm a 25 year old grown woman' she proclaimed, ‘Look, I think I can deal with a couple of freaks who have nothing better to do than put fear into the hearts of innocent people!' However, as she settled into her new seat, three familiar faces could be made out from the far seats of the carriage and by now it was too late as the sliding doors banged shut. ‘Just keep calm', she thought but in reality she was extremely hysterical. As she subtly tried to gaze over to the far side of the carriage, the boys suddenly began to shift uncomfortably in their seats and almost seemed nervous. The boys with their eyes bloodshot and their faces flushed gave the impression that they were under the influence of drugs, alcohol or perhaps both. The boy on the right of the girl had on a crumpled white t-shirt that was stained with heavy blotches of brown. A bruise lay on his left eye and his lip had a small cut in it. He seemed the more nervous of the two and was literally trembling. However, the boy on the left of the girl seemed to be quite serene and composed in comparison to his companion who was quite the opposite. He had a severe expression and wore a thick jacket of fur. He had a heavy gash on his right arm and his nose was bleeding. Still. The girl stayed still, unmoving as a statue in a garden. Her face almost death like and as pale as a white sheet of paper. Her bright, vast, ginger bob of curls heavily contrasted with this strange and ghostly complexion. Her eyes, piercing like the rays of a bright sun. Her jaw, fully agape as though it were an opening into a mysterious cavern. Her shirt was slashed across the torso and her underwear lay exposed due to this. Great slashes lay from her upper arm right down to her wrist. The boys had entwined their arms around that of the girl's and seemed to be making a great effort to sustain her in a sedentary position. At this moment in time, Helen decided to turn her face away from this ghastly, frightening sight towards the other side of the carriage. She really didn't understand why these strange beings that she was trying to get away from had followed her into the new carriage. However, she then spotted a man that looked officious but overpowering at the same time moving over towards the seat next to her. By now Helen was really starting to lose her calm and collected aura.Suddenly,he started mumbling something but Helen felt that this was just another unfamiliar being that was just trying to get her attention. Nevertheless, he persisted and finally got through to Helen by writing something on the newspaper he was reading and showed it to Helen. ‘GET OFF AT THE NEXT STOP!' it read, ‘YOU'RE IN SERIOUS DANGER-THAT GIRL YOU SEE IS DEAD-THIS IS NO JOKE-I AM A DOCTOR AND I KNOW THIS FOR SURE, SO HELP YOURSELF WHILE THERE'S STILL TIME!!' By this time, Helen was well and truly in a hysterical state and it was almost as if her heart was about to leap out of her body. However she still managed to keep a cool cover as the train approached Hammersmith station. She then got up, stood, walked through the sliding doors and made her final exit off the train. As she did all these actions, she made sure that she acted as if she were the most innocent and unsuspecting creature in the whole world. When the train moved slowly away, she first of all turned around to see whether she could spot the man that saved her and give her his thanks, but the station lay empty. Lifeless. Dead. Before she even had time to think her legs had turned into that of a professional sprinter and carried her out of the station at the speed of lightning. Never again would she be so reckless and try to prove herself tough, by encountering such a life threatening ordeal at such a perilous hour.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Use of Formal Assessment Tools for Patients Spiritual Needs Essay

Use of Formal Assessment Tools for Patients Spiritual Needs - Essay Example From this essay it is clear that  the spiritual needs of the patients are less tangible compared to physical, because they are often difficult to measure, complex, and abstract hence, given lower priority than other needs especially physical needs. Spiritual needs are defined as factors that are needed to diminish the spiritual deficits or enhance spiritual strengths of a person. These needs are concerned with person’s relationship and meaning of things that transcends the material things.This paper outlines that to achieve much effectiveness and efficiency, formal assessment tools should take less time, be flexible, and be easy to use. The words used during assessment should encourage the patient to participate in the process. It should be conducted in a manner that is non- judgemental and non-threatening. There are three major formal assessment tools namely: FICA Model, Howden’s Spirituality Assessment Scale, and Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale.  The scale focuse s on four main areas namely: transcendence, inner resources, meaning and purpose in life, and unifying interconnectedness. Lastly, Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale is an assessment tool used by health professionals and is based on assessing spiritual needs of older adults. The tool is based on 21 statements which are rated according to a scale of â€Å"strongly agree† - â€Å"strongly disagree†.  These formal assessment tools are the best way for a health professional to ensure that assessment and care of patient’s spiritual needs are met.

Sunday, July 28, 2019

The relevance of Geography Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

The relevance of Geography - Research Paper Example In order to understand the relevance of geography to other subjects, it would be necessary to present primarily the key characteristics of geography, as one of the most critical sciences. Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso (2006) explain that geography focuses on the presentation of the ‘phenomena developed on earth’s surface’ (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso 2006, p.4). However, it has been made clear that the above role of geography should be expanded, incorporating the social and cultural characteristics of each place (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso 2006). In this context, the holistic approach for explaining the geographical characteristics of a region has become quite popular (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso 2006). The holistic approach is based on the view that no restrictions should be made in regard to the material used by geographers when having to explore the geography of a specific area (Gabler, Petersen and Trapasso 2006). In practice, this means that geography can be related to all subjects under the terms that the quality and the credibility of findings of the study involved are secured. According to Varma and Vedanayagam (2007) the study of geography has not been always highly valued. It is explained that geography has been traditionally considered as a subject necessary for the support of other disciplines (Varma and Vedanayagam 2007). Through the decades the power of geography as part of the curriculum has been increased (Varma and Vedanayagam 2007). Today, geography has become an independent science, keeping its role in explaining issues related to other

Saturday, July 27, 2019

The Application of Marketing - PARTA -The tools of Marketing Essay

The Application of Marketing - PARTA -The tools of Marketing - Essay Example For example, advertising is a powerful means to reach out to customers, but it is expensive and needs to use the right media and the right message for effective results on the vast resources expended on it. Public relations is a more subtle approach useful in managing issues of public concern and top level messages, but suffers from the deficiencies of requiring professional support and difficulty in evaluating its impact. Sales promotion is an effective means of addressing a particular target market, whose impact on the objective of increased sales can be measured, and enhances sales channel commitment to the product. However, it suffers from the deficiencies of forecasting problems, with the effect being only as long as the sales promotion lasts and the possibility of brand devaluation, particularly if price is a part of the sales promotion strategy. Yet, when used in conjunction these tools of marketing can be an effective to achieving the marketing objectives for a product (Cheve rton, 2006). In 2003, Coca-Cola along with its competitor Pepsi ran into trouble on India, when the environmental NGO, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE report) released a report that the presence of pesticides in the soft drinks exceeded the European standards (Vedwan, 2007). Coca-Cola attempted to negate the effect of this accusation by running advertisements using film stars to indicate that their production infrastructure and methods provided soft drinks that were pure for consumption. In addition they ran a sales promotion campaigning giving 50 ml more of soft drink at no extra cost. These efforts failed, though Coca-Cola was not at fault for the CSE report on the presence of pesticides in the soft drinks and their market share dropped. There was more faith in the non-profit making report than in the claims of the profit making multi-national giant and went to show the inept

Friday, July 26, 2019

School Uniforms in US Public Schools in Michigan Research Proposal

School Uniforms in US Public Schools in Michigan - Research Proposal Example Moreover, a broad discussion relating to the correlation between student behavior and school uniform has also been discussed. Besides, valuable suggestions for improving the effectiveness of school uniform policies in MI school district and mitigating the problems have also been discussed. Discussion School uniforms are often used in every part of the world as a part which helps in maintaining a proper coordination amid the pupils or the learners by a greater level. The introduction as well as the execution of school uniforms can be duly considered to be a global method of upholding law and order within an educational setting. It can be apparently observed that the educational institutions implementing the policy of school uniforms are less involved in arising disputes amid their pupils (The Michigan Legislature, 1999). The topic of introducing school uniforms in the state of Michigan has been in discussion from many years. It has been stated that the state shares no concern in maint aining discipline in public schools resulting in poor academic performance and incident of violence within their respective campus. It can be affirmed from a broader outlook that school uniform associated policies are often designed to foster the performance of the students in an effectual manner. But in certain cases, it can also be viewed that the implementation of the policy did not proved to be quite effective. While certain critics consider adaptation of the school uniform policy to be a fundamental change in the educational environment, it is also criticized concerning its execution affecting right to freedom by a certain degree. Therefore, it is quite vital especially for the school officials to make effective decisions considering both the positive as well as the negative effects that may arise from employing such policies. It has been viewed that in the year 2000, around 21% of the schools encircling the region of the United States have adopted the policy of effectively usi ng school uniforms amid their pupils. In relation to recognize the problems concerning school uniforms, it can be stated that the main reason behind the increase in adoption of school uniforms in the institutions around the country

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Direct Flower Delivery. Analysis Of The Website Assignment

Direct Flower Delivery. Analysis Of The Website - Assignment Example This Web site report details both front and back end capabilities. In inclusion with technical details, this report also consists of the customer interaction specifications. DFD, Direct Flower Delivery is a web based Florist to cater the growing Flower needs of people of United Kingdom. There are a large number of companies in UK delivering flowers to their customer’s home. People often send flowers, whether it is a birthday, wedding and some other special occasions. Many places such as restaurants, hotels, offices and many houses use flower to decorate the place. Not only flowers are used for specific occasions, there are many people changing their flowers at home once a week. To simplify the ordering procedure of these needs, DFD has evolved and is committed to serve the best to its customers. Currently, DFD is serving its customers with its web site. DFD offers wide range of choices to its customers. Through its site, DFD offers whole lot of features to its customer such as the freedom of ordering flowers online, Secured payment transactions, Track the delivery of ordered items and also a reminder service with important dates. The highlight of this web based company is that the customers have the advantage of designing their own style, pattern and of course flowers that are be delivered, apart from selecting from the pre-defined templates. 2. Website Objectives The objectives of this web-based florist are to offer features that will permit and promote the following: Ordering flowers with just a click of a mouse. Easy browsing and searching for various regular & seasonal flowers. Web tools which enable secured online payments. Easier accessing of information and help generally. Web tools to foster community relationship and cater their needs. In Simple, to make it easy and offer choices for their customers 3. Description of Target Audience The customers will be anyone in UK who looking for flowers to be sent to someone or themselves, whether for special occasions or to decorate their houses. The company will have a web site which design to make shopping for flowers on the internet quicker and easier. If such availability exists, the company will deliver flowers to the address on the date which has been requested by customers to be sent to. Customers can individually create their own design in flowers over the website and the flower which they create will be send to the address that they request. Customer will be able to track down their deliveries. The company will provide the information on the process of delivery for each individual customer, in order for customers to be able to track down their deliveries. 4. Business Constraints 4.1 Negative Constraints: 4.1.1 As it's a Web-based company, the competition is severe and to handle this aspect the web site and the company has to be on toes 24hours. 4.1.2 It's very hard to predict the volume of business the next day. The customer may be literally from anywhere on this world. If it's Florist on the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

On-Line BA Human Development Degree Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

On-Line BA Human Development Degree - Essay Example I want to participate in the Human Development Online Degree Program because I want to continue learning and help people understand themselves. I have taken many online classes through community colleges and I have enjoyed this virtual paradigm educational approach since I am an independent learner. I want to use this virtual educational paradigm because it fits my style of learning versus the traditional educational setting that has been in existence for centuries. If we observe the patterns in history, the traditional educational system has had its flaws: absenteeism, illiteracy, behavioral problems, and, low scores in standardized tests performances. Through this virtual paradigm, I am able to work at a self-paced mode. I can work at any time of the day or night. Being able to work from home, gives me the opportunity to do my readings and assignments at my leisure. I am able to do the research using the various search engines, the institutions of higher learning also suggest websites that may accelerate the research process, and the professor and my classmates may recommend others. The virtual paradigm allows me to meet and work with classmates who may be geographically located at another part of the world. It gives us (professor and students) the opportunity to know about each other: cultures, customs, history, traditions, and idiomatic terms. It gives us the opportunity to share our differences and similarities. This exposure to people from other countries will hopefully make us more sensible and sensitive to other peoples ´ needs for satisfaction in educational endeavors. This will give us the opportunity to have contact wi th people that we may not ordinarily have when we live in small isolated locations. I will be able to make-up my own schedule to study and work on my assigned tasks; deliver the tasks on a particular date not necessarily on a particular day and

The Mental Capcity Act Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Mental Capcity Act - Essay Example The law also applies to common decisions involving personal care, diet, movement and grooming. In practice, the MCA generally provides for making decisions based on the victim’s best interests. In working out what the best interests of a vulnerable party looks like, the proxy must not tamper their decision with other unrelated issues such as the principal’s age, looks, condition or behaviour. Secondly, they should consider postponing important decisions for persons who cannot make decisions due to temporary conditions. Thirdly, they should involve the individual who does not have mental capacity in decision-making processes (Murray, 2013). In contrast, the Act requires decision-making processes to be based on the vulnerable individual’s past principles. It is also important for proxy decision-makers to factor in the perceptions of others, especially care providers and other parties who are interested in the individual’s welfare (Symington, 2007). In addition, any such decisions should not be inclined towards taking the life of the vulnerable party if they still have a chance to recover. The MCA has since substituted an Enduring Power of Attorney (EPA) with a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA). An LPA is a licit document allowing persons to select an individual who can decide about their health and assets in the event that they become incapable. In this case, the attorney is the party mandated to draw conclusions on their behalf. In addition, with the LPA’s property and affairs option and the personal welfare option, vulnerable individuals have, since the MCA was implemented in 2007, enjoyed all-encompassing protection when they become incapacitated. The property and affairs LPA provides the attorney(s) the authority to decide about the victim’s financial and other physical property issues, such as car or managing rental property. In contrast, the personal welfare LPA empowers the attorney(s) to decide on the victim’s health and individual welfare,

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Hiring veterans into organizations Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Hiring veterans into organizations - Term Paper Example The measure to hire these people shows their concern and attempt to recognize their contributions, sacrifice, skills and service towards society. Since 1980, the Veterans’ Employment and Training Service (VETS) in the United States Department of Labor (DOL) is trying to raise awareness and concern about the need and value of recruiting veterans. ‘VETS’ has also been trying to launch new initiatives for increasing their engagement and association with employers and organizations with special focus on the private sector. The employment of veterans accounts for one of the priorities for the Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis. The reason why the above topic has been chosen is to bring out the contributions of veterans in organizations and the significance of hiring them. They have been identified as peak performers and are also proven sources of talent. Moreover their immense importance in the organization is based on the fact that they can yield an immediate bottom line benefit as they are established credentialed and because their skills and abilities have been tested and shaped under various opportunities and challenging circumstances (Burnell, â€Å"A Trained, Ready and Proven Source of Talent†). ... Out of its total employee strength, 50 percent of them are military veterans. A major portion of the veterans work overseas with the US forces in Iraq, Afghanistan, which provides insight into the correlation between the skills of the soldiers and the skills required for the attainment of success for the civilian workforce of today. The project highlights on the challenges faced by managers in translating the military skills into the civilian job experiences (Hadley, â€Å"What employers are doing†). The hiring of veterans creates certain hurdles in confronting with the challenges of inducing the internal culture of the organization with that of the new recruits. Moreover it is important that the organization understands the nation’s military services. Veterans are increasingly confronted with the problem of finding jobs in organizations which do not understand their military services. Veterans have to play the crucial role of bridging the gap between the civil recruite rs and their experience through an interview with a single resume. It is important that organizations identify the gaps and make their working environment well suited for the workings of veterans (Hadley, â€Å"What employers are doing†). As presented by the Carlos Echalar, executive Vice President in the human resource department at ManTech International the human resource departments in organizations recruiting veterans feel the need to translate the military skills into civilian service experience as challenging as that of speaking in two different languages. Understanding the responsibilities involved in active duty is ingrained in the organizational culture of ManTech’s. The organization has been associated with numerous defense organizations since

Monday, July 22, 2019

Witnesses Fear of Retribution by the Gangs Essay Example for Free

Witnesses Fear of Retribution by the Gangs Essay In America there are a lot of many gangs such as Pico Rivera and Pico Nuevo and many Americans have fallen victims of them. These gangs terrorize people and the police are very determined to control then but their efforts are hampered by one thing, and this is the fact that the witnesses to particular cases refuse to give their testimonies for fear of retribution by the gang members. My focus on this essay is to discuss on why witnesses fear to testify in courts and how this fear should be allayed. According to the deputy attorney general Gary Haearnsberger, out of 258 cases that were heard, over 170 of them were murder cases and witnesses refuse to testify for fear of reprisal by the gang. People feel free to explain to the police what they saw but when it comes to testify in the court they refuse. As per the West Covina detective Dan Nalian in his news report on gangs noted hat there are people who witness shooting scenes and even identify the culprits but when they are asked to be witnesses in court they object. This has even become like a norm in the United States of America that it is not the right thing to testify against any gang for fear that you shall be attacked in retaliation though others refuse to testify due to their criminal related records. A case in point is of 4th March 2005 where a four-man gang tricked a woman claiming that they were his boyfriend’s gang mates only to demand to be directed to them. After they reached where his boyfriend and his two friends were, fierce shooting ensued and a fifteen-year-old boy sustained head injuries while her boyfriend and his partner went unhurt. This woman clearly identified the four-gang members as the residents of Pico Rivera. According to her eye account, these gang members were: Joseph Aranda who was aged twenty years old and Fernando Aranda aged twenty years. She forwarded their names to the police department and promised that she would testify in court against them. But as time went by she could not fulfill the promise she made to the police officers that she would testify in court against them. After a period of three years later the woman refused to testify claiming she couldn’t remember exactly what happened on that fateful day or even remember who the men in a jeep were. Not that it was hard to remember what happened but she feared retribution by the gang. (Gonzalez R. 2008) According the Gary Hearnsberger, the Deputy District Attorney, all gang cases have one thing in common and this is that no one is willing to appear in a courtroom to testify of anything because they fear that the gang who would then seel reprisal would mark them. These gangs have their working code that disallows anybody from testifying against any gang group in court. As per this town code, even the gangsters are not allowed to talk with the police or have any relationship whatsoever. The gang members are very stubborn individuals who are ready to suffer rather than cooperate with the police. They would rather go to jail than reveal their secrets. Many people have been victims of witnesses in courts and these gangs have killed some of them. â€Å"Some gang members live up to this code even if it means going to prison. They see that as a badge of honor, Hearnsberger said. What is kind of funny about the gang culture, as much as they completely disregard rules and laws, they will live up to their own. † (Gonzalez R. 2008) As the president of the California Gang Investigators put it, people confide to the police on everything that they witnessed but when it comes to making a testimony against the gang members it becomes extremely hard. All people should wake up to the fact that gangs rarely attack law abiding citizens and this includes those who are willing to testify in courts on a particular case but this does not mean that they cannot be attacked. In accordance with the 6th amendment, the accused person is entitled to a speedy and public trial conducted by a jury in the place the cat was committed. The accused person must be told in no uncertain terms the reasons for the arrest and then be challenged by witnesses with their evidences or what they saw. The witnesses should be escorted by police officers in and out of the courtroom to prevent them from being attacked by the gangs, as this has been the case in the past. No body should be imprisoned if there is no enough evidence given by the witnesses and the defendant should also be allowed to call his/her witnesses and they should be compelled to testify if they refuse. If the accused persons are capable of representing themselves in court according to the 6th amendment, then they should be given that chance. The defendant is also given a chance to cross-examine the other witnesses who are against them so that the truth could be established. The witnesses from both sides should be protected to allay their fear of retribution. There is nothing that worries the witnesses more than to hear that their families would be attacked just because they tesfied in courts. According to Cmdr. Karpal, witnesses who refuse to testify in court even after they are provided with proper security they should be charged of court contempt like that woman who witnessed robbery and even identified the gang members but when the time for testifying came, she refused to turn up though she was assured of protection by the police. This woman when she was arrested gave an information that contradicted the information that was recorded when she reported the case by saying that she could not identify the gang members. It was later established that this woman was an accomplice of one of the members that were standing on Rex road and this is why one of the reason that was given by the police for witnesses’ failure to testify was that some of them have criminal records though to others it is fear of retribution. (Gonzalez R. 2008) Witnesses should also be fully convinced that they would be guaranteed security even if it means being relocated to another area. The Pasadena police is determined to ensure that witnesses are given the protection they deserve. The Pasadena police are also prepared to arrest those gang members who victimize and intimidate witnesses. If there arises a situation that the gang members are intimidating any witness, then the police would relocate the witness and protect them. For example, the woman who was tricked by the thugs was to be relocated after she reported that those thugs were threatening her. â€Å"Her car was vandalized, she was being stared down and having stuff thrown at her. † (Gonzalez R. 2008) If witnesses could be assured of maximum security, then the fight against gangs would be won, as the main stumbling block is that witnesses fear to testify for fear of reprisal by gang members though there are others who fear to testify because they have some criminal records. The police has come up with a new plan so that they could offer protection to all those that are willing to testify in courts. They also go for those gang members who intimidate witnesses from testifying against their case. Reference. Gonzalez R. 11th March 2008. Witnesses Fear Retribution from Gang Members. Star News Pasadena, CA.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Definitions Of The Concept Of Dignity Nursing Essay

Definitions Of The Concept Of Dignity Nursing Essay The essence of this essay is to give an in depth understanding of the concept of dignity in the care system. This essay will focus on the issues discussed in the group Enquiry Based Learning (EBL) presentation; define and critically analyse the concept of dignity from different perspectives, in relation to its abstract and subjective nature. How dignity is maintained by health professionals, influenced by cultural differences, and look at some current initiatives used to promote dignity in practice. Furthermore, I will focus on my experiences in practice to illustrate the concept of dignity, using relevant theories to support my discussion. I shall conclude using Gibbss framework to reflect on the group presentation. I have chosen to focus solely on Dignity of identity as it relates to my chosen area of nursing. Nordenfelt identifies four concepts of Dignity: Dignity of Menschenwà ¼rde,  Dignity of merit,  Dignity of moral stature, and the Dignity of personal identity. In my definition of dignity, I will dicuss definitions that relates to elderly people in care. As an adult nursing student specialising in the care of the elderly, who are the main users of health services, the knowledge gained in the process of this essay will be applied to every adult in my care. Definitions of the concept of Dignity Dignity is a difficult concept to define, and has a strong association with respect. Dignity is defined as being worthy of respect. (DH,2003) cited from Andrew and Alison however, The Social Care Institute for Excellence (SCEI; 2006) pointed out that although defining dignity may be difficult, people know when they have not been treated with dignity and respect. The definition of dignity from the oxford dictionary talks about the innateness of dignity in human as it is natural. This is also embedded in Article 1 of the United Nations General Assembly Declaration of 1948, reiterate in 1996 by the United nations International Bill of Rights, which states, that all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights (United Nations, 1996).(matiti). From the EBL group presentation Professor Lennart Nordenfelts theories on dignity were discussed; firstly, Dignity of merit- based on hierarchical position in society, dependent on economic/social class can be hereditary. Secondly, Human Dignity gives rise to the value of being human, and the Dignity of moral stature based on a persons moral autonomy/integrity and, lastly Dignity of identity which focuses on human beings self-respect, including notions of integrity and autonomy, and may be violated when a person is prevented from doing what they want to do or are entitled to do, or by physical assault and humiliation. The last aspect of Nordenfelts definition of dignity, which is the dignity of personal identity, is the one that can be related to the elderly. Due to possible limited capabilities associated with ageing individuals they could be subjected to their dignity being violated, as their condition may result in them being dependent on others for their daily activities of livin g, thus depriving them of their right from doing what they would want or entitled them to do, which may bring about physical assault and humiliation. *missing quote to be inserted, upon confirmation of source** The Royal college of Nursing (RCN) has made it clear that dignity applies equally to those who have capacity and those who lack it. Everyone has equal worth as human being and must be treated as human beings and must be treated as if they are able to feel, think, and behave in relation to their own worth or value. *missing Dignity in Care quote to be inserted, upon confirmation of source** It is evidenced from my research on the definition of dignity that people perceive dignity differently due to its subjective nature. Nonetheless, there is no general agreement on what dignity actually means. Julie Clark, 2010. However, there is a consensus that it is a value possessed by every human being. Everyone irrespective of circumstances should be treated with dignity. Nordenfelt argues that, Menschenwurde is the basic platform. Each older person has his or her intrinsic value, which entails a number of rights, among other the rights of the UN Declaration. People do not lose any of these rights because they have reached a particular age. **(Dignity in care for older pp)** Badcot states that, Kant I Cited in Gallagher et al 2008 holds that human beings posses dignity because they are rational, autonomous creatures with intrinsic value who can pursue and determine their own ends. Kants definition of dignity in relation to intrinsic value appears to rely upon possession of autonomy. ` Treating patients or clients with dignity is considered as part of providing them with quality care and allowing them to experience quality of life which can be violated according to Nordenfelt due to their circumstances; illness or old age. (Dignity in Care text book) PROMOTING DIGNITY IN CARE It is of paramount importance that healthcare practitioners promote dignity in care at all times. There are conditioning factors and attributes that have been put in place to govern dignity in care situations. One of the most important conditioning factors is for the nurse to gain a full understanding of the concept of promoting dignity in order to provide good nursing care to our adult patients. In care situation, dignity may be promoted or diminished by the following factors; physical environment, organizational culture and the attitude and behaviour of the nursing team in the way care are carried out. There are several ways in which patients or client dignity can be promoted. According social institute of excellence (2010) there are 8 main factors that promote dignity in care. Few of which I will explain with example. Dignity can be promote by health care professionals by involving patients in their own care, empowering to make their own decisions and choices concerning their care. Treating patient or client as an individual involves listening to them and to avoid caring for them as a group, encouraging independence and giving time and choice. For example, give patient choice of how they would like to be dressed by asking them to choose cloths of their choice. When communicating with patient, it is important to express respectful verbal and non verbal communication; Listening, responding, allowing time and use of therapeutic communication when required. Healthcare professionals should cultivate the habit of approaching patient in an appropriate manner thus, with respect and professionally. Providing patients with necessary information regarding their health, results in them having sense of value. Explain procedure to gain consent cooperation prior every procedure and including them in their care by giving them choice and freedom to express their feeling of makes them feel a sense of belonging and that nurses are not dominating the care they offer. Maintaining privacy is important. For example, during procedures, curtains should be pulled around patients bed using peg, to ensure privacy. Keeping the environment clean is very important. For example, a commode should not be left at the patients bed side after use. It is concluded that reflection on, and improvements to, the care environment makes a significant contribution to patients, relatives and staff feeling valued and respected.(Matiti) When dignity is present people feel in control, valued, confident, comfortable and able to make decisions for themselves. When dignity is absent people feel devalued, lacking control and comfort. They may lack confidence and be unable to make decisions for themselves. They may feel humiliated, embarrassed or ashamed. It is of paramount important to organise and involving elderly people in stimulating activities, particularly those in a nursing home in as this will help to prevent isolation. According to 2008 Gallagher et al it states that old age may intimidate dignity due to the fact that the amount of social inclusion and participation are limited. When patient and client are not treated with respect and dignity it tends to gave negatives impact on their wellbeing thus affects them psychologically and socially. dignified treatment correlate most closely with high satisfaction with the hospital stay, thus indicating that patients who perceive that they are treated with dignity are happier with their overall hospital experience. (matiti) (chochinov et al, 200b) Matiti) indicated a link between loss of dignity and various negative effects, such as psychological and symptoms distress, heightened dependency needs and loss of will to live It is affirmed by legislation and ethical of the profession that, all healthcare professionals to at all times promote patients dignity and respect. (chochinov et al, 200b) Matiti) indicated a link between loss of dignity and various negative effects, such as psychological and symptoms distress, heightened dependency needs and loss of will to live INITIATIVES TO PROMOTE DIGNITY The desire to restore dignity to the heart of nursing is an attempt to challenge and redress some of the delegation and overspecialisation that has occurred over the past decade, which have perpetuated the perceived erosion of care (Scott, 2000). However, (Maben and Griffiths, 2008). From dignity champion exerts that Campaigns for dignity in care may not necessarily result in the change of values, attitudes and beliefs that are perceived to be lacking in nursing As it has been stated that dignity is difficult to define and that care professional might not be equipped with the necessary skills and Knowledge required of them to treat client with dignity however, there are governing bodies which are in place to help health practitioner in using initiatives to promote dignity. These initiatives are readily available as a guide to healthcare/care provider in order to effectively and adequately treating client with respect and dignity. Adherence to these initiatives, consequently result in meeting clients needs as individual and providing quality care. Design for patients dignity is another body that promotes dignity. They have created a number of initiatives to help practitioners in care setting. These includes, universal gown which caters to all sizes as well as cultural and religious beliefs. The gown also covers all part of the patients body including the front and the back which gives patients privacy and allows them to feel secure and many more. 23 December 2012 My home life focuses on elderly people, this is why it has been chosen my home life movement is also a governing body who formed a variety of initiative which aspire for best practice includes a sense of security; this involves gaining trust and maintain confidentially unless on a need to know basis. A sense of significance allowing them to feel sense of worth and valued , recognising their presence, listening and understanding their needs, empowering them in order for them to make choices and decision about their lives. A sense of continuity All of these initiatives help to promote their dignity because they feel a sense of belonging. (Nolan et als Senses Framework). From my research it is evidenced that several research have been carried out to promote dignity in care settings. One of these initiatives is Dignity in Care network set up by SCIE (SOCIAL CARE INSTITUTE FOR EXCELLENCE).The 10 point Dignity Challenge is the framework and the gold standard this initiative aims to restore dignity at the heart of the health and social care orofessionals Initiatives from the department of health including the National Service Framework for older people, the follow-up Next steps document and the Dignity in care Campaign incorporating the dignity challenge, all aim to promote the necessary changes in culture that are needed to ensure that older people and their carers are treated with respect, dignity and fairness. The Department s Essence of care: Patient-focused benchmarks for clinical governance also offers a framework for healthcare professionals to use in measuring their practice relating to privacy and dignity. The Healthcare Commission report Caring for Dignity (2007) maintains that dignity is a human rights issue and should be the underlying principle when delivering services. However, there is little guidance and no way of measuring how well a service respects a persons privacy and dignity. Dignity is a complex concept which means different things to different people, but is de ¬Ã‚ ned as being made up of two parts: having self-respect and being respected by others. Maintaining dignity helps to preserve our self-worth and identity; this is particularly important in care settings where residents are often vulnerable, and caring practices can make people feel undigni ¬Ã‚ ed owing to their personal and intimate nature. It is often easier to identify when dignity has been lost rather than when it is being maintained. (Nursing Residential Care, August 2009, Vol 11, No 8) (Privacy and dignity in continence care: research review) PRACTICE EXPERIENCE. that devalues and does not respect the dignity of the individual should be confronted. Mrs Husseins smiled and said thank you. My mentor replied that it is our job to care for patients needs. Mrs Husseins dignity of identity was compromised as the care assistant took the advantage of Mrs Husseins condition to violate her dignity of identity for her own conveniences. Professor Wilfred exerts that Dignity is promoted when individuals are enabled to do the best within their capabilities, exercise control, make choices and feel involved in the decision making that underpins their care. I had my clinical placement in a stroke ward where i came in contact with people with different types of stroke and those on rehabilitation pathway. There were several instances where I experienced how patients dignity was being maintained and conversely, compromised. For the purpose of this essay a pseudonym will be used in order to protect confidentiality (Nursing and Midwifery Councils code of conduct 2009). I cared for Mrs Hussein, a 75 years old, Asian woman who was admitted into the ward with ischemic stroke which left her with right sided weakness of both limbs. (Walsh 2002) defines a stroke as an interruption of the blood supply to a part of the brain and the development of neurological deficits. Mrs Husseins health condition required her to be dependent on carers has she requires help for almost all her activities of daily living. During the morning shift I supported the care assistant to wash her. We sought for her consent and asked if she would like to have her bath, curtains were pulled around using peg and her private part covered with towel until the private part needed to be washed, ensuring that her privacy and dignity were maintained. The Nursing and Midwifery council (NMC 2009) exerts that people should be treated with respect and dignity. After we finished bathing her, I headed to her cupboard to get her cloths, but the care assistant said she is wearing the hospital Gown because she is incontinence of both urine and faeces. Mrs Hussein said she does not want the Gown that she prefers her own clothes because the hospital gown does not cover her body properly, she explained. Unfortunately, her request was ignored. Despite the code of conduct (NMC2009) that states that You must listen to the people in your care and respond to their concerns and preferences. Also, International Journal of Nursing Practice 2011; 17: 336-341 also asserts that Listening to patients is a necessary precursor to respecting their dignity in care and in supporting their sense of their own dignity Mrs Hussein was not looking happy as her wish was ignored. I intervened by moving closer to her, held her hand used the therapeutic communication skill. I held her hand to explain to her that I will get one of the carers that will assist in changing her to her own cloth. The attitude and communication skills of the individual practitioner can do much to ensure that these and other similar experience are not made worse. Matiti I reported the situation to my mentor and she came with me to change her. . According to Wilfred (professor in dignity of older people) Any practice Those patients on rehabilitation pathway were at all times given the choice of what to we particularly the women were encouraged to wear their personal cloths as they may need to go for physiotherapy. This is done at all times to maintain patients dignity. I also experienced an 82 years old man who was admitted into the ward and was confused. Due to his condition he always undressed himself. This resulted in making the decision for him to be relocated to the side room. The idea of being in the side room alone led to him not be attended to as he was confused and could not use the call bell Control of the bowel and bladder is something which people develop as small children and loss of this important to preserve a persons privacy and dignity during such care. Sufferers to feel child-like and stigmatised. Older people with continence problems often feel a loss of dignity in care settings (Nursing Residential Care, August 2009, Vol 11, No 8 During my placement I also noticed that when there was a shortage of staff, the patients dignity tends to be diminished. For example, in the stroke ward where I was, patients who were unable to feed for themselves required assistance but due to the shortage of staff patients had to wait for turns to be fed as a result, their food must have gone cold which then diminishes their dignity because if they were able to feed themselves they would not have to wait for assistance. The hospital toilets particularly, the ones in shared bays are relatively small for carer to manoeuvre which sometimes subject patients dignity being diminished. It is believed that one of the factors inhibiting dignity in practice is as result of the healthcare professionals not adequately equipped with the necessary skills and knowledge required of them to be able to carry out their work effectively. Also, the fact that the concept of dignity is a very difficult to define, it is difficult to give a specific definition that may be used to underpinned practice. (Anderberg et al, 2007). Therefore, there is need to help healthcare workers in practice to identify practical ways of promoting patient and client dignity Patient dignity is feeling valued and comfortable psychologically with ones physical presentation and behaviour, level of control over the situation, and the behaviour of other people in the environment (Baillie, 2007, p.247).Matiti Within healthcare settings, how patients feel they are viewed by staff caring for them, or how staff feel they are viewed by colleagues and patients, can affect self esteem. If a persons own standards are met, they develop a sense of pride, have high self-esteem and feel worthy. Matiti Access to lavatory/bathroom facilities There is often insufficient access to lavatory/bathroom facilities with staff unavailable to help and alternatives, such as commodes, offered that people found embarrassing and undignified. This diminished their dignity and result in the patient not wanting to call for toilet. Pulling of curtains during procedures is crucial at all times. . Conclusion Dignity in care is not the sole responsibility of one professional group: all health and social care professionals need to be dignity champions. Nurses are more aware and informed of the different dimensions of peoples Wilfred (professor in dignity for older people) nursing times REFLECTION ON EBL Reflection is a process of reviewing an experience to describe, analyse, evaluate and to inform learning of practice (Reid 1993) cited in Sully and Dallas. Gibbs reflection cycle process (1988) will be used to reflect on my presentation. This comprises of six features and listed below in chronological order. DESCRIPTION: reflecting on the EBL process, on the first week, trigger was given to the group to analyse and discuss the implication for practice. We worked, strived and researched together as a team for four weeks. The process started by electing chairperson and a scribe. Thereafter, topic was shared amongst us as subgroups to research upon, which we all came to agreement. According to (Thompson et al 2006) working together is the nature of nurse education to explore theoretical and clinical principle and applied them to practice. Each week, prior to the presentation date each subgroup came up with their research and we discuss on our research and asked every member of the group for an individual input before the arrival of our facilitator. Finally, research carried out was put together and we decided between ourselves who would like to present. In the end we were all happy with our performance and the marks awarded, as the marks will be added to individual final marks. FEELINGS: Feelings and thinking are considered the most essential aspect of the reflective process; therefore, great care should be taken during this process (Ely and Scott, 2007). Prior to the presentation, we were overwhelmed with feelings of nervousness and jittery, as well as incompatibility of the group members. There was a fear of time management, as we had only 30 minutes to present. Presenters had rehearsed before the proper presentation was carried out to ensure that we bit the time. In the end, the time management was perfect and our presentation was splendid. EVALUATION: The good thing about the teams was that there is always a good turnout for extra meeting out the normal class hour. Although, some do came late for sessions but get the group informed. Working as a team was a great experience; it gave me more confident and better understanding of the topic. The EBL presentation has shown me how to develop my knowledge and skill, effective listening skill was observed at the time of the presentation. However, on the last meeting day before the presentation, there was issue of summarizing two different slides on the power points this brought a bit of argument but it was summarised and we all settled amicably. The presentation provided me with an in-depth knowledge of the dignity in care. According to (Elly and Scott 2007) evaluation process is a stage that enables one to reflect on the performance of your experience, what was wrong and right about your experience. ANALYSIS: in the process of EBL study i developed the knowledge and skill of gathering and sharing information, effective communication and listening skills as well as the spirit of working together for the benefit of achieving common goal. Also, the process gave me the privilege to gain in-depth insight on how dignity can be promoted in care setting, initiatives to promote dignity and the impact of undignified care on the elderly and the vulnerable people in general. Analysis is the process of making sense of the whole experience or situation and putting it in context (Bulman and Schutz 2008). ACTION PLAN: when next the opportunity of group presentation arise, I will try and volunteer to take part in presenting for the group as this will help boost and build my communication skills and developed confidence to face the audience. Action plan according to (Ely and Scott 2007) is a way of planning for the future and organising yourself in case similar events occur in the future. Conclusion: This essay has provided me with relevance information regarding EBL presentation, the trigger and the use of Gibbs reflective cycle 1988.

Importance Of Ability And Personality Of Applicants Commerce Essay

Importance Of Ability And Personality Of Applicants Commerce Essay The linear approach is the one approach that was involved in the case of career development of the person. This approach is the best one to the person in order to decide his career path and goal. This linear approach provides the guidelines to the person in order to achieve his goal and his career development in his life. It also concentrates to the person in the case of improving the strength of the person and it focus the strength and weakness of the person. This approach was involved in the case of providing the step-by-step process to the response of the person thats why person can be motivated positively. The person can get his career options without any interruption. References Tricia Jackson.(2000). Career Development. British Library publications of Data. 2. Importance of ability and personality of applicants The applicants were selected primarily on the basis of ability and the personality fit in order to obtain the enhancement of organization. These both elements are deciding the concentration and the strength of the application in the organization. The management requires the better ability and the personality from the applicant thats why applicant can fit for accessing the organization. The better ability and the personality both concepts are necessary in the case of resolving the critical situation in the organizations. The applicant can also manage the products and services of the organization. The ability and personality provide the new technical ideas and concepts to the applicant in order to improve the profits of the organization. References Heller, D., Judge, T. A., Watson, D. (2002). The confounding role of personality and trait affectivity in the relationship between job and life satisfaction.  Journal of Organizational Behavior. 3. Advantage and disadvantages of seniority layoff The laying off employees on the basis of seniority is taking some process in order to provide the sense of fairness to the workers. The advantages are keeping experienced workers, showing employee loyalty. Keeping the experienced workers refers the laying off workers that were based upon the seniority most experienced workers in order to maintain the organizational products and services. This will provide the better level to the organization. Showing employee loyalty is the advantage to the organization that shows sense of loyalty to the organization. The employee loyalty can improve the worker morale in the organization. The disadvantages are limiting improvements and keeping highly paid workers that are giving the poor products and services to the organization. Keeping experienced workers, employee loyalty and keeping high paid employees are the alternatives to the seniority. References Ricky W. Griffin.(2005). Human Resources Management. DreamTech Publishing. 4. Career development of organization The modern organizations are flatter and offer fewer opportunities for advancement. The career development is the one that involves developing the key strategic asset of organization. The careers must develop the excellence and goal of the organization in order to provide the innovations to the organizations. They must encompass the vertical issues including the upward mobility and promotions. The careers must deal with the fundamental nature of relationship among the work and employee in the organization. The career must be developed the empowerment in the case of expressing the demands of organization. The career development program must be implemented by careers in order to provide the organizational innovations. References Jonathan E. DeGraff (21 February 2010).  The Changing Environment of Professional HR Associations.  Cornell HR Review. 5. Training and career development The training and the career development are having some differences in the case of improving the organizational activities. The training is the desired outcome in the case of improving the skills of individual and productivity. The productivity includes the personnel professional activities. The training can lead the development of individual in the organizations. But the career development is the measurement in the course time and that develops the long term process of organization. The career development concerns the nature and development of personal attitudes and it includes plans for potential employee and management. Training must provide the better skills and knowledge to the employees that will lead to employee turnover. The career development must develop the employees, senior management to improve retention. References Diane Arthur (1995). Training and Development.  Managing Human Resources in Small Mid-Sized Companies. 6. Challenges of post- traditional family The several challenges occur to the organization by the post- traditional families and they impact the organizational functions. The post -traditional families are giving the challenges to the organization in the case of health insurance and the life insurance coverage. These are the major challenges to the organization in the case of mitigating the employee benefit problems. The health insurance and the life insurance were having the trouble to give the employee benefit by the post traditional families. The organization is having the pleasure to provide the better mitigation techniques to meet these challenges. The organizations are making the employee benefit strategies to face these challenges in order to make the value to life insurance and health insurance coverage. References Charles Handy.21 Ideas for Managers: Practical Wisdom for Managing Your Company and Yourself, First ed San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2000 Print. 7. Employee motivation The training is the better solution in order to improve the employee motivation. The training expands the high level responsibilities to the employees and they are providing the new types of jobs to the employees. The authority is provided to the employee in order to make the decisions by the training and the training is inviting the employee in order to contribute for making more planning. It also provides more access to significant meeting for the participation of employees. The establishment of goals, measurements and priorities can be provided by training in order to improve their motivation. The training can be used to assign the head up projects to the employees for providing the motivation. References Fishbein, M.; Ajzen, I. (1975),  Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley 8. Human Resource Management The HR management is having the pleasure to hire and eliminate the employees in the organization. According to HR management, the unqualified employees will be eliminated from the organization and because of unqualified employees are making the less experience and waste of time for managers. HR management must make the solution for this problem. The HR management must hire the employees that are based upon the effectives of employees. Additionally, HR management must consider some factors when hiring the employees that are training, development, career planning, performance evolution, compensation, collective action and personnel control. These factors will give the solution for those problems. References Wright, Patrick.  The 2011 CHRO Challenge: Building Organizational, Functional, and Personal Talent. Cornell Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies (CAHRS). Retrieved 3 September 2011. 9. Organizational commitment Watkinss company have done something to make her see the whole picture and gain an understanding of commitment to know the work of organization. The company must explain the importance of software documentation and commitment of organization in order to teach the wok and abilities. According to this case, she is affected by lack of knowing the things and she doesnt know how to contribute to the whole thats why company must make the better awareness to her. The company must clarity her doubts then only she can able see the picture and know the things about the commitment and works of organization. The company must involve her in the case of practically oriented things. These things the company must have done to make her see the picture and the organizational commitment. References Meyer, J P and Allen, N J (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations,  Human Resource Management Review, 10. Managing Survivors The organizational manger would have about the surviving workforce after the layoff in order to mitigate the organizational risks. Then the manger must concentre to restructure the organization, increase the organizational efficiency, make cost-cutting efforts, and reduce the demand of products, implementing the mergers and acquisitions. These are the primary concerns that associated to the managers in order to make the decision. HR management supports to the survivors of layoff. HR management implements several strategies that are used to provide the support to survivors of layoff. Re-emphasizing the mission, vision and the goal of survivors can give the major supporting points to survivors of layoff by HR management. Recreating the work environment is the best one to remove the survivors in organization. References Henry Mintzberg (1981). Organization Design: Fashion or Fit  Harvard Business Review  (January February). 11. Importance of training The conflict resolution training method is the one that is the approach to the organizational conflicts. This is the suitable training in order to mitigate the organizational conflicts. This training provides the better communication to maintain the organizational relationships. The lack of role in organization is the causes of conflict in organization and this training improves the organizational role by assigning corresponding work to the organizational roles and hence the organizational conflict will be reduced. This training is also used to address the leadership problem in the organization and because of leadership problem is the causes of conflict in organization. The leadership problem will be avoided satisfying the requirements and the expectations of the organizations thats why this training is the best one to mitigate the organizational risks.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Terrorism - America: Muder Unlimited :: Argumentative Persuasive Topics

America: Muder Unlimited There's been no peace in my lifetime as an American. I don't know if fear of nuclear war had any effect on the Soviet Union but it sure affected me. The background radiation of the Manhattan Project has followed me everywhere. Was I born with post-traumatic stress disorder? No, my mother said I was a happy baby. She must have done a good job distracting me. At least, I didn't notice that I was lving through an endless series of wars. But as a citizen of the United States, I've lived through one war after another. They were not all called wars. In the past twenty years the American military has been involved in Iran, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Korea, Guatemala, Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, Panama, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia, Dominican Republic, Oman, Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras, Libya, Bolivia, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Somalia, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, Haiti, Croatia, Zaire, Liberia, Albania, Sudan, Macedonia, Afghanistan, Cuba, and many more. I didn't repeat any countries even though we had repeated engagements with some. I know I have left out some. In January 1961, President/General Eisenhower said, "In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist." We were in the Cold War more than 40 years. We have been in a war with Cuba for 39 years and counting. We have been in an ongoing war with Iraq for 10 years. Economists talk about the peacetime expansion of the U.S. economy. There hasn't been a time in my life when the U.S. was not involved in killing people in my name somewhere in the world. Yet this passes for peace. I think this is because U.S. military activity has always been global, mostly out of sight, away from home. Years ago the U.S. government was killing Buddhists in the jungles of Southeast Asia. Now it is killing Muslims in the mountains of Southwest Asia. This is what this "Judeo-Christian" country keeps doing while pledging allegiance to its flag, singing patriotic songs, and invoking its variant of God, a Supreme Being. These things go on simultaneously. The military activity is constant and continuous. That is why the military budget is so large, more than $350 billion this year.

Friday, July 19, 2019

It Should NOT be a Crime to Smoke :: essays research papers

It Should NOT be a Crime to Smoke Out in the cold, a lone member of society stands alienated from the rest of the world. A plume of smoke rises from her mouth; this is what sets her apart from the rest of the population, the fact that she smokes. In the last decade, this has been happening as people become staunchly more politically correct. It has almost become a crime to smoke in this country as the year’s progress. Is this right? Should smokers be treated this way, are they worse than the rest of society just because of their habit?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Smokers have been banned from almost ever facility in this nation, save some fast food restaurants and bars. Almost all the nice restaurants have eliminated smoking sections, and for what reason: to quell the cry of all the nonsmokers in this world? If these people had their way all the smokers would be crammed into a rocket and shot off to farthest reaches of the universe. Why have smokers been driven out of public places when there are efficient ways of eliminating secondhand smoke? There are machines called smoke eaters that have been scientifically proven to eliminate 98% of the toxins found in secondhand smoke. Why are these overlooked when legislation is passed making it illegal to have smoking sections in public buildings? I do not have the answers to these questions, only the politicians do.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ithaca College is not above these ridiculous laws. Ithaca College is trying to pass legislation that bans smoking from certain out door areas of the campus. How ridiculous is this. Smokers are not only banned from all indoor areas but now we are confined to certain outdoor areas. President Peggy Williams wants this to go through and says it is time to make a stand. I say that all the smokers of this nation should ban together and put an end to this tyranny that makes our lives more difficult every year. We must stop them from discriminating against us.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I believe that smokers should have the right to smoke anywhere outdoors and in certain areas indoors where efficient second hand smoke elimination procedures are in place. I need no backing for the outdoors claim because if smokers are not permitted to smoke outdoors than where are they allowed to smoke, only in their houses with the windows closed and the blinds drawn?

Thursday, July 18, 2019

An Overview of Peace and Conflict

AN OVERVIEW OF PEACE AND CONFLICT DEFINITIONS: Peace is often seen as the converse of war. i. e. peace and war as two sides of the same coin. Hence the definition of peace as the absence of war, and that of war as the absence of peace The problem with this definition is that it does not explain everything about peace and war For example even in situations of war, some conditions of peace still prevail. E. g. in spite the long years of hostilities between the Israelis and Palestinians, both have been able to reach a peaceful agreement on the use of their water resources.Secondly, the definition does not take into account the issue of structural violence, in the words of John Galtung. According to Galtung, war represents only one form of violence, which is physical, open and direct. The others form of violence has to do with social conditions of life. This consists of †¢Poverty †¢Exclusion †¢Intimidation †¢Oppression †¢Want †¢Fear and †¢Other forms of psychological pressure So from this analysis, it is possible not to have peace even where there is no war.This is the situation in countries where there is acute poverty, police brutality, oppression of the poor by the rich, use of power to intimidate people by those in power. Even where there is no war in such societies, they may not experience peace (Ibeanu) OTHER VIEW OF CONFLICT: †¢Conflict as the pursuit of incompatible interests and goals by different groups †¢Conflict occurs as a struggle over values. The values may be in terms of physical of material possessions or resources, status or power. (Louise Coser) †¢Central to conflict is the issue of perception.When one party perceives the action of another as preventing or blocking the attainment of a goal, conflict is said to occur. Therefore the two ingredients necessary for conflict to occur are: ? Perceived goal incompatibility ?Perceived opportunity for interference or blocking. In other words, conflict occur s when an intended action is perceived to be inimical or detrimental to the realization of one’s objective Generally perception is a product of man’s physiological, cognitive and cultural dispositions which of course differ from person to persons, and from one environment to another.Therefore, we can say that conflict is inevitable to the extent that it is fundamental to the existence of any institution, body or society It is inevitable because human beings are naturally different from one another in their attitude, perception and orientation. But conflicts could be destructive if not properly handled. Hence we often sat that the way and manner conflicts are resolved differentiates one organization or society from another. VARIOUS PERSPECTIVE OF PEACE †¢To the Instrumentalists: Peace is a means to an end. Here the absence of war serves the objective of social progress and development.In other words, where there is peace, society will experience positive transforma tion in all facets of life. 2. TO THE FUNCTIONALISTS: Peace has a social function of integration and order. That peace is fundamental if society is to function properly. If not the social and political system will experience stress, and then brake down. 3. TO THE PHILOSOPHERS: Many philosophers interpret peace as a natural, original, God-given state of human existence. i. e. , the pre-corruption state of man in society, as God established it. This is the God’s created state of perfection.EXAMPLES OF PHILOSOPHERS †¢St. Augustine of Hippo: He distinguished between â€Å"two cities†, namely; The city of God, founded on perfect heavenly peace and spiritual salvation; and the Earthly city of man, founded on acquisition and possessive mentality of man, but corrupt and always in conflict. †¢John Rousseau: He sees from the angle of a state of nature, the original state of existence of man where there are no desires, where men were naturally good, free and enjoy tranq uility. But this atmosphere was corrupted by human desire and greed for private property †¢THOMAS HOBBESHis argument was that peace is a product of the state of nature where life was poor nasty, brutish and short, and where society was in a state of perpetual war. For men to overcome this sorry state, they resolved to establish a social contract in which each gave up his/her right to self defiance to powerful force (what he called the leviathan) above all to which all were subject, thus creating a more peaceful and orderly life †¢THE HEDONISTS AND UTILITARIANS Argue that human beings naturally seek happiness and avoid pain, and consequently prefer peace to war and violence. PLATO: He addresses the social context of peace. He sees justice as the most fundamental basis of ordered social life. For him, justice is the basis of peaceful social life. Justice is given to each his or her live. Plato defines society in terms of three classes of people: – Workers – eng aged in production – men of appetite – Soldiers – defend the society – men of courage -Rulers – Govern the society – Men of Knowledge Each must operate within his area of competence, and where this does not operate, he sees injustice †¢SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE OF PEACE The Sociologist also addresses the social context of peace †¢The Sociologist sees peace as a condition of social harmony, the absence of social antagonisms †¢Peace to the sociologist, is a condition in which there is no social conflict and individuals and groups are able to meet their needs and expectations This is achieved through the establishment of structures to perform certain basic functions of society; for example a society must service, it must educate it citizens, produce goods government and its often provide security for its members.To achieve these structures such as schools, industries, parliaments, courts and armed forces are established. †¢Th erefore to the sociologists, peace is achieved where these structures perform their functions adequately †¢TO THE MARXISTS: †¢Conflict is a product of dialectical materialism †¢It is a product of the structure of rewards in the society †¢It is a reflection of the nature of class and class struggle †¢This breeds a struggle for the control of the means of production in the society †¢The result of the attendant inequality is in two folds; Violence perpetrated by the upper class on the oppressed – Violence engineered by the oppressed against the ruling class – revolutionary violence. Hence the phrase â€Å"Those who make peaceful change impossible make violent change inevitable† †¢Political Perspective of Peace †¢Politically peace is synonymous with political order when the political structures are stable, we talk of peace in the society: †¢Peace is also seen as a political condition that makes justice possible. The colap se of the political structures lead men to seek other route to enforce their will. These may be in the form of Mob action, demonstration, strikes or even military coups To ensure peace therefore the political structures must be stable and effective to extent that they perform their role. Politically, these must guarantee citizens participation in the political process; ensures tolerance of opposing views; and encourage bargaining and negotiation.Also politically speaking, peace suggests that government does not rely on coercion and the instruments of force (such as army, police) in dealing with citizens Instead people willingly accept and obey the dictates of government Peace in this sense connotes mutual consent and agreement to respect the rules governing a society whether locally or internationally. But the question is whose order? Must every political order be sustained just to ensure peace (e. g. The Nazis, Mobutus, Abacha)

Morality in Islam Essay

Morals be the plinthards castigate by night club for an skilful hu spell military mansner. It can likewise be c every(prenominal)ed the ability to distinguish between even so out and wrong. properlyeousness is the adherence to the practiced value present in the society, especi some(prenominal)y the by-line of total clean-living lot. Islam is a schoolwide dash of spirit, and chasteisticity is angiotensin-converting enzyme(a) of the cornerstones Islam. theology is one of the fundamental sources of a body politics strength, just as unrighteousness is one of the main ca ingestions of a res exotericas decline. Islam has established nearly commonplace fundamental rights for humanity as a whole, which argon to be observed in completely circumstances.To uphold these rights, Islam has provided non just legal safeguards, nonwithstanding in addition a very effective clean system. Thus, whatsoever tows to the welf atomic number 18 of the soul or th e society and does non oppose any maxims of the religious belief is goodly correct in Islam, and any(prenominal) is mischievous is chastely bad. Given its greatness in a wellnessy society, Islam supports cleanity and matters that lead to it, and stands in the way of decomposition and matters that lead to it. The guiding principle for the behavior of a Moslem is Virtuous whole kit and caboodle. This term covers all whole kit and boodle, non simply acts of worship. The Guardian and Judge of all whole works is immortal Himself.Morals in the ordinary society might rent evolved substantially over the centuries yet their main social occasion remains the same i. e. to practice good behavior and abstain from ill conduct and injustice. The quest of justice, tolerance and fairness has been apprehended and upheld by man for centuries, and detest for detestation doings and cruelty has been ever present. ethical motive has a very important section in the religion of Islam and in the spirit of a Moslem. Islam tells us that the conscience of a person has it in him to do good deeds and refrain from injustice. The blessed leger calls good, maruf-a well(p) known things and bad, munkar-an unknown thing.It nitty-gritty that it is desirable to do good deeds and undesirable to indulge in evil practices. The Quran says By the Soul And the comparison and order attached to it, and its enlightenment as to its wrong and its right- truly he succeeds that purifies it, and he fails that corrupts it. (917-10) The moral values in Islam shoot with the alliance of a man with his graven image, man with his fellow beings and the mans relationship with his soul. The moral codes given to Islamics to follow be Divine steerage from Allah himself. These codes and values stand the test of time and argon common in their nature.One can work how much importance and is given to morals in Islam. The hallowed Prophet (pbuh) tell that the good manners and morals were the in truth test of a mans excellence. He (pbuh) said The best of you argon those who live with the just about excellent morals. The moral values of Islam atomic number 18 instrumental towards creating a healthy and a sustainable society. The moral values in Islam emphasize on piety, attention, forgiveness, justice, kindness br oppositehood, e caliber, truthfulness, lawful earning and acquisition of knowledge. The Holy Quran signifying the value of justice says for Allah spangs those who atomic number 18 fair and just. (499) The morals in Islam overly incorporate the conduct of an psyche towards his p bents, spouse, relatives and neighbors. Islam instructs the wear outner to give his fellow beings their due rights and cease his obligations towards them. The guidance for human beings to live their life in Islam comes through Divine molds. The hope of paradise, and the warning from the inexplicably hot fire of the hell, motivates the truster to follow the right path. The Divine guidance sets the bill for the about excellent likely moral behavior.Importance of morality in Islam is beautifully captured in the saying of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) The thing which will perform the majority of the masses enter enlightenment is fear of Allah and good manners. he to the highest degree(prenominal) fundamental characteristics of a Muslim are piety and humility. A Muslim moldiness be low with idol and with other deal And turn not your saying away from people (with pride), nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, God likes not each(prenominal) arrogant boaster. And be dull (or show no insolence) in your walking, and degrade your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the voice (braying) of the ass. (Quran 3118-19) Muslims moldiness be in get overs of their passions and desires. A Muslim should not be vain or attached to the transitory pleasures of this macrocosm. While most people allow the substantial world to fill thei r hearts, Muslims should stop God in their hearts and the material world in their hand. Instead of being attached to the elevator car and the job and the diploma and the bank account, all these things become tools to make us advance people. The daytime whereon neither wealthiness nor sons will avail, simply only he (will prosper) that brings to God a sound heart. (Quran 2688-89) Principles of godliness in Islam.God sums up righteousness in verse 177 of Surat Al Baqarah It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards East or West however it is righteousness (the quality of ) the one who believes in God and the brave out Day and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers who spends of his wealth, in spite of adore for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, to the needy, to the wayfarer, to those who ask and for the freeing of slaves and who is steadfast in prayers, and gives Zakah (Alms) and those who fulfill their covenants which they made and who are longanimous and perseverant in poverty and ailment and passim all periods of fighting.Such are the people of truth, the pious. This verse teaches us that righteousness and piety is based before all else on a true and sincere faith. The pick out to virtue and good conduct is a strong relation with God, who sees all, at all times and everywhere. He knows the reclusives of the hearts and the intentions shag all activitys. Therefore, a Muslim essential(prenominal) be moral in all circumstances God is aware of each one when no one else is. If we shop everyone, we cannot deceive Him. We can flee from anyone, yet not from Him.The love and continuous sentiency of God and the Day of Judgment enables man to be moral in conduct and sincere in intentions, with devotion and lettering Indeed, the most honorable among you in the chaw of God is the most pious. (Quran 4913) then(prenominal) come deeds of beneficence to others, especially giving things we love. This, like acts of worship, pray ers and Zakah (mandatory alms), is an integral part of worship. A righteous person essential be reliable and trustworthy. Finally, their faith must be firm and should not crash when faced with adversity.Morality must be strong to vanquish putrescence And God loves those who are firm and steadfast. Patience is frequently hardest and most beautiful when its against ones own desires or choler And march forth toward forgiveness from your Lord, and for enlightenment as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious. Those who spend (in the way of God) in prosperity and in adversity, who deoxidise anger, and who pardon people verily, God loves the doers of the good deeds. (Quran 3133) These three acts are among the hardest things for most people, but they are also the hear to forgiveness and to paradise.Are they not the best, those who are able to exercise charity when they are in need themselves, control when they are angry and forgiveness when they are wronged? T his is the standard by which actions are judged as good or bad. By making good-natured God the objective of every Muslim, Islam has set the highest possible standard of morality. Morality in Islam addresses every feel of a Muslims life, from greetings to international relations. It is universal in its scope and in its applicability. Morality reigns in selfish desires, vanity and bad habits.Muslims must not only be virtuous, but they must also enjoin virtue. They must not only refrain from evil and vice, but they must also counter them. In other words, they must not only be morally healthy, but they must also contribute to the moral health of society as a whole. You are the best of the nations raised up for (the benefit of) men you enjoin what is right and forbid the wrong and believe in God and if the followers of the Book had believed it would have been better for them of them (some) are believers and most of them are transgressors. (Quran 3110) The Prophet, may the mercy and b lessings of God be upon him, summarized the conduct of a Muslim when he saidMy sustainer has given me nine commands to remain sensible of God, whether in private or in public to speak justly, whether angry or dexterous to show moderateness both when misfortunate and when rich, to reunite friendship with those who have modest off with me to give to him who refuses me that my conquer should be occupied with thought that my feeling should be an admonition and that I should command what is right. The love and continuous awareness of God and the Day of Judgment enables man to be moral in conduct and sincere in intentions, with devotion and dedication. The Glorious Quran also says scan the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are shameful deeds, whether open or secret sins and trespasses against truth or reason duty assignment of partners to Allah, for which He hath given no control and saying things about Allah of which ye have no knowledge. Al-Quran 733It is interesting t hat the Quran refers to sins and trespasses against truth or reason.It is an indication of Gods blessing to every human being, of an internal moral sense. Such a moral sense, when uncorrupted by family or society, is what leads people to praiseworthy acts of virtue. Islam aims to enhance and amplify the moral sense in every human being and adorn the individuals character with the noblest of virtues. The Islamic moral principles therefore, compendium naturally to the human intellect, while elevating the pursuit of morality to the level of worship. This is because Islam holds every action that is done with the goal of attaining of Gods pleasure to be worship. Morality and the individual The guiding principle for the behavior of a Muslim is what the Quran refers to as Al Amal Assalih or virtuous deeds. This term covers all deeds, not just the outward acts of worship. Some of the most primary character traits expected of a Muslim are piety, humility and a profound sense of accountabi lity to God. A Muslim is expected to be humble before God and with other people. Islam also enjoins upon every Muslim to exercise control of their passions and desires.Islam warns against vanity and excessive attachment to the ephemeral pleasures of this world. While it is easy to allow the material world to fill our hearts, Islam calls upon human beings to keep God in their hearts and to use the material world in moderation and in accordance with Gods guidance. The Glorious Quran says The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, but only he (will prosper) that brings to Allah a sound heart Al-Quran 2688-89 Charity is one of the most commendable acts in Islam.In fact, Zakah, the annual charity that is obligatory on every Muslim who has accrued wealth above a certain level, is one of the pillars of Islam. Gratitude in prosperity, patience in adversity, and the courage to uphold the truth, even when inconvenient to oneself, are just some of the qualities that every Muslim is en couraged to cultivate. Morality and Society For an individual as well as a society, morality is one of the fundamental sources of strength, just as fault is one of the main causes of decline.While respecting the rights of the individual within a broad Islamic framework, Islam is also concerned with the moral health of the society. Thus, everything that leads to the welfare of the individual and the society is morally good in Islam, and whatever is harmful is morally bad. Given its importance to a healthy and just society, Islam supports morality and matters that lead to the enhancement of morality, and stands in the way of corruption and matters that lead to the spreading of corruption.The injunctions and prohibitions in Islam are to be seen in this light coda Morality in Islam addresses every aspect of a Muslims life, from greetings to international relations. It is universal in its scope and in its applicability. A Muslim is expected to not only be virtuous, but to also enjoin v irtue. He/She must not only refrain from evil and vice, but must also actively lodge in in asking people to avoid them. In other words, they must not only be morally healthy, but must also contribute to the moral health of society as a whole.The Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) summarized the conduct of a Muslim when he said My Sustainer has given me nine commands to remain conscious of God, whether in private or in public to speak justly, whether angry or pleased to show moderation both when poor and when rich, to reunite friendship with those who have broken off with me to give to him who refuses me that my silence should be occupied with thought that my looking should be an admonition and that I should command what is right.