Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Conflict Assesment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Conflict Assesment - Assignment Example ing the two sets of results, my personal score in the negative conflict management style such as avoidance and competition was lower than the score on the positive conflict management styles such as accommodation, compromise, and collaboration. On the other hand, my score as given by the person from family, who is my cousin, was quite the same as mine. The analysis from my supervisor is quite deflecting from my score. My supervisor felt that it is not common for me to deflect from conflict, hence, I am cooperative and also assertive. The score from my cousin that was similar to mine confirmed my love for deflecting from confrontation which did not really surprise me. The fact a member of the family had a great opinion regarding avoidance; it means I have a lot to work on regarding my conflict resolution. Regarding competition, it was a fair score because the scores of the two people did not deviate much from my score. I am an averagely competitive person, hence their opinion did not surprise. This means I am averagely aggressive compared to being assertive and I often like winning arguments at the expense of other people (Wilmot & Hocker, 2013). My score on accommodation was higher than that of my supervisor, although it is the same as that of my family member. This means that my supervisor does not think that my conflict management style includes giving up my personal interest for the creation of harmony and peace (Wilmot & Hocker, 2013). This surprised me greatly because I regard myself as quite selfless. Regarding compromise I gave myself a higher score than my supervisor, but the same as my cousin. This means that my supervisor thinks that I do not usually make a concession that results in an outcome that is mutually agreeable. This was surprising because I love creating peace and being considerate. My collaboration score was the same as the member of my family and was higher than that of my supervisor. Collaboration entails cooperation to facilitate a

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Developments of Far Right Ideologies

Developments of Far Right Ideologies 1. Introduction Political scientists, in recent years, have been concerned over the revival of extreme right political movements in Europe and other parts of the world. Even as extreme right wing ideologies continue to be identified by the general public with the discredited fascist movements that swept Europe in the first half of the twentieth century, they also continue to fascinate political experts and the public with their myriad hues, complexities and the morbid attraction they hold for people in different political settings. Just three-fourths of a century back, in the first quarter of the 1900s, waves of leftist movements buffeted the countries of Europe and threatened to overwhelm not just the bastions of free trade and capitalism, but also the democratic models that, to some degree, worked in the UK and the USA. The aftermath of the First World War, depleted European treasuries and the great American depression had led to large-scale unemployment, poverty and economic despair in most states of Western Europe. With life being uncomfortable, unfair and difficult for millions of people, the political environment was open to upheavals and led to the spread of Communism, and to the emergence of fascism, as well as its widespread acceptance. These two political ideologies, one left and the other right, deeply opposed to each other, went on to dominate the political processes of Europe until the Second World War. The war ended in the military defeat and eclipse of fascism, as well as its virtual obliteration from the political lexicon. The vengeance of the victors ensured that the word became a worldwide slur, shunned by all political parties. Fascism owes its origin to the Italian leader Benito Mussolini and takes its name, both from the word â€Å"fascio†, meaning union or league, and from fasces, a Roman symbol of magisterial authority that suggests strength through unity. Its ideology, while originally represented by the political movement led by Mussolini, later came to stand for a generic class of authoritarian ideology that received widespread acceptance and support in Western Europe. While fascist parties and governments faced the charge of commitment of enormous crimes against humanity after the end of the Second World War and their extinction led to widespread relief, the eighties and nineties witnessed resurgence in parties with broadly similar extreme right ideologies. The resurrection of the extreme right in Europe in the last two decades has also led to the expression of new thoughts, which focus on strong opposition to immigration and on the disenchantment of certain sections of society with the contradictions and challenges created by the democratic system. Britains problems with xenophobia and right wing violence have their equivalents all over the Continent, from Antwerp to Vienna. I could just as easily have begun this book with descriptions of the right-wing street terror of the East German university towns of Jena and Erfurt, or the widespread surmises-probably untrue-behind the soccer hooligan violence of the European Cup in 2000. Or the right-wing electoral surges that occurred from Romania to the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. Or the racist prejudice and violence visited upon asylum-seekers and immigrants in places as far apart as Paris and Budapest. A host of extreme right-wing phenomena-though hardly anything resembling the fascist and Nazi upsurge of the 1920s and 1930s-are on the march all over Europe. [1] Many European countries, including the UK, have political parties with neofascist political ideologies. However, a number of factors, like the absence of a defining common ideological treatise, (like the communist manifesto that governs leftist thought) as well as significant differences in their political and social approaches, have led some political scientists to surmise that extreme right wing ideologies do not share a common theme. The representation of every isolated xenophobic reaction to be a manifestation of neofascism has also added greatly to the confusion enveloping the issue. It is the aim of this essay to study the history, nature, incidence and practice of extreme right wing political thought, and analyse whether this impression is valid, or whether all extreme right movements do share common and distinct ideology. 2. Commentary Right wing ideologies sprouted all over Europe in the 1920s and 1930s. Apart from Italy under Mussolini, Germany’s Third Reich under Adolf Hitler, Portugal’s Estado Novo, Hungary’s Arrow Cross Perty, Romania’s Iron Guard and Spain’s Falange were among the parties and governments considered to be fascist. In recent years fascism and modern concepts of extreme right ideologies have been studied in detail by researchers like Roger Eatwell, Roger Griffin, Piero Ignazi and Cas Mudde, their work contributing significantly towards opening up the area to greater scrutiny. The rise of extreme right wing ideologies is associated mostly with the fascist movements in Italy and Germany, which culminated in seizure of governmental power. Its’ rise in Europe, however, actually commenced with the end of the First World War, and the descent of an uneasy peace on the war ravaged continent.This peaceful interregnum was, as is well known, marked by a number of deveopments that led to the collapse of democracy in most European countries; other than France and Britain. The Bolshevik Revolution and the formation of the Soviet state had already sent shockwaves through the landed gentry, the bourgeoisie and the businessmen of Europe. This â€Å"fear of communist takeover, imaginary or otherwise, coupled with widespread unhappiness over the Versailles Treaty, terrible economic conditions, huge unemployment figures and the desire of minorities to assert themselves created conditions that seemed to herald the doom of capitalism†[2] and invite ambitious and power hungry individuals to come forth, promise grandiose futures, create easily distinguishable punching bags, weave extravagant dreams of national glory and take over the reins of power. Mussolini came to power on the back of a political career that began in 1912 and culminated in his assumption of the Prime Minister’s office, and dictatorial powers, in 1922. Even though he entered politics as a socialist, his journey to power was marked with many shifts in ideology, which saw him, at different stages, allying with the landed bourgeoisie, espousing women’s suffragette, wooing capitalists and breaking worker strikes; all this, before the takeover of power by his Fascist Party led to a more detailed elaboration of Italian extreme right wing ideology. â€Å"The Party, along with big business, the Church, state, army, Fascist unions, and corporations became one of several semi-autonomous power centres in Fascist Italy.†[3] While Mussolini became the archetypal fascist and encouraged the rise of fascist movements in other countries including the Nazis in Germany, the Heimwehr in Austria, Mosley’s party in the UK and the Falange in Spain, his form of fascism differed from extreme right ideologies prevalent in other countries of Europe; which in turn were influenced by local political and social conditions. Similar differences in right wing ideology espoused by various parties in Europe exist even today. The progressive vulgarisation of fascism over the years and its representation as a badly put together collection of half-baked clichà ©s and reactionary attitudes has served to make extreme right ideology a collective object of derision, the misconceptions over its principles being further exacerbated by continual mindless referrals that sometimes border on the ludicrous. George Orwell wrote in 1944: the word ‘Fascism’ is almost entirely meaningless. In conversation, of course, it is used even more wildly than in print. I have heard it applied to farmers, shopkeepers, Social Credit, corporal punishment, fox-hunting, bull-fighting, the 1922 Committee, the 1941 Committee, Kipling, Gandhi, Chiang Kai-Shek, homosexuality, Priestleys broadcasts, Youth Hostels, astrology, women, dogs and I do not know what else almost any English person would accept ‘bully’ as a synonym for ‘Fascist’. [4] However, many political scientists thinkers do believe that extreme right wing ideology, when used in a proper and accurate context, is well defined and has specific features. Robert Pearce argues that the ambit of orthodox fascism specifically includes (a) an extreme form of nationalism, where humans are important but only as part of a nation, (b) social Darwinism, which stipulates that struggle between nations is inevitable, (c) theories of racism, which operate on hierarchies of races and brand some as inferior; (d) anti-positivism, or rather, the belief that humans are influenced more by myth and intuition than by logic and reason, (e) the notion of the heroic and wise leader, and (f) the idea of the corporate state, a constructive middle path between capitalism and communism.[5] Roger Eatwell of Bath University has also put forward a number of stipulations that he feels should form a minimum fascist agenda. Eatwell states that the importance of the new man and the creation of new elite are at the centre of fascist ideology. This concept of elitism, illustrated by Mussolini’s belief in trenchocracy and Hitler’s obsession with breeding a race of super teutons, is common to all fascist and extreme right political thought. In fascism, the new man is required to battle for his country and be instrumental in the build-up of the state. Fascists placed emphasis on integrating man through a form of manipulated activism in both the political and economic spheres. They were encouraged to attend mass celebrations, which unquestionably had a quasi-religious appeal for some. The Dopolavoro and German copy, the KdF, organised events such as mass holidays, for example to the island of Rà ¼gen, which had the largest hotel in the world in 1939. Professional sport too became a form of popular control. State-subsidised sport could also provide more individualised and even commercially-related pleasures, such as motor sport in which Alfa Romeos, Mercedes and Auto Unions vied for dominance and national prestige on Europes circuits.[6] Apart from a strong focus on the development of manhood, fascism was distinguished by an emphatic sense of nationalism, a strong belief in the importance of race, a virulent opposition to communism and the significance of the state in regulating political, social and business activity. The importance of the state arose primarily from the contempt that leaders of fascist movements felt for the ability of the masses to play any constructive role on their own. The inordinate use of myth and propaganda by fascist governments also emphasises this proclivity of the elite to think of the masses as gullible and easily led herds. The use of myth was thought to have a much stronger effect in galvanising public opinion than the use of reason and logic, be it to foster belief in the concept of racial superiority, the necessity for persecution of Jews, the imperativeness of going to war, or for increasing production in factories. While anti-Semitism reached demoniacal proportions in Nazi Germany, the importance of racial purity and superiority was also evident in Italy, where coloured people, rather than Jews, were targeted for persecution. While fascism, per se, was based on the specific value systems elaborated in the preceding para, the extreme right movements that emerged in Europe in the 1980s were influenced by certain contemporaneous developments that resulted in some modifications to the traditional approach. Right wing extremism, though still not a serious threat, has gained significant acceptance in the recent past in countries like France, Germany, Austria, Belgium and Italy. Le Pen scored very well in the French presidential elections of 2003. Many European extreme right parties, for example, the Flaams Blok in Belgium, the Alleanza Nazionale and Lega Nord in Italy and the FPO in Austria have succeeded in increasing their electoral base. Germany and Austria, in particular, have seen strong growth in the development of neo fascist support. Since unification, a violent xenophobic youth culture and an extreme right movement with neo-Nazi edges have taken hold and spread in Germany, especially in the states of the former GDR, temporarily, they established so-called nationally liberated zones in which they try to seize power and authority by means of sustained violence, and they are supported by occasional regional electoral successes. [7] The political development of the new right differs from country to country. In Europe, it appears to have moved away from conventional neofascism to firstly, incorporate resentment against immigration and dilution of cultural heritage in its agenda, and secondly, use democratic representation to push for anti immigration policies, based on nationalist and populist emotions. According to (Piero) Ignazi, the new extreme right politically signifies, articulates and successfully mobilizes a formerly silent counter-revolution of a return to authoritarian-nationalist and conventional moral values, directed against culturally pluralized, postmaterial libertarian values, individualized lifestyles, and postindustrial sociocultural modernization.[8] In 2000, Jorg Haider’s FPO became Austria’s second strongest political force. Moreover, the party also succeeded in entering government, albeit as a junior partner; the first case of power coming to the hands of the extreme right in a West European country after the demolition of the Italian and German regimes. In a state that considers itself to be one of the biggest victims of Nazism, the FNP and the FPO, both parties that belong to the extreme right, base their electoral appeal on a mixture of ethnic pride, national identity, xenophobia, and anti Semitism. It is pertinent to note that Austria has also had to face significant increases in immigration, legal and illegal, after the fall of the iron curtain and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. Cas Mudde, who in his book, â€Å"The Ideology of the Extreme Right† has made a detailed analysis of five rightist parties, concludes that four features, built around the core of nationalism, form the essence of right wing extremism.[9] The state should implement a policy of internal homogenization and create a mono-cultural society through the deportation of foreigners The world view is defined by a pervasive xenophobia, in which anything different is seen to be threatening and includes external and internal enemies All parties studied support a form of socioeconomic welfare chauvinism Well-ordered community life is essential for the protection of citizens and society. Roger Eatwell states that in addition to using xenophobic insecurities, extreme right parties also attempt to broad base their appeal by supporting tradition and conservatism in social life. Certainly extreme right groups tend to defend traditional values. The FPÃâ€", for example, developed in the late 1990s the idea of a Kinder Scheck, a form of new child benefit designed to help keep women in the home (previously welfare programmes had not figured in FPÃâ€" campaigns, other than through its stress on immigrant parasites). They also tend to be hostile to forms of sexual liberation, such as homosexuality. Extreme right groups also tend to be nationalist, although a notable minority stresses ethno regionalism as the primary source of identification (the homogenous, relatively limited geographic region is often portrayed as a natural rather than bureaucratic barrier to immigration)[10] The extreme right, in the 1920s and in recent times, has worked primarily on the insecurities of people who feel threatened and insecure by seemingly uncontrollable social, environmental and economic developments. This happens, mostly by using conspiracy theories and by projecting social contradictions onto an intangible and hazy enemy. These ideologies continue to appeal to the social paranoia of threatened sub-groups by projecting the benefits of a well-ordered authoritarian world peopled by ethnic and nationalist communities over the numerous uncertainties and social challenges raised by democratisation, the implementation of universal values and modernisation of culture and society. 3. Conclusion It has become increasingly evident that electorates have not been able to entirely reject extreme right ideologies, even after the ostracisms heaped on them after the Second World War. Extreme right ideologies continue to exist, not just under the dictatorships of despots like Idi Amin, but also in the democratic and affluent economies of Western Europe. Neofascism takes much of its inspiration from the fascist theories of the 1920s, when people were aroused on the platforms of superiority of race, creation of superior men, anticommunism and delusions of nationalist grandeur. Modern day ideology continues to stress upon the importance of ethnicity, if not race, and mostly all extreme right ideologies converge in their aim of removing outsiders. While the concept of the mythical ideal man is not thought of, any longer, as a serious possibility, extreme right ideologies work on a sense of ethnic nationalism, the desire for homogenization, and the relative safety of an authoritarian and socially conservative state, ruled wisely by a powerful and able leader. Extreme right movements have not become powerful enough to capture power and run governments, the exception being Austria where the FPO participates in Government as a minority partner. As the ideologies of extreme right parties are still restricted to inflammatory rhetoric, it is difficult to predict the modifications these ideologies may have to undergo, when faced with the real and inherently globalised and democratised world. An illustrative example is the case of the FPO in Austria where the party, classified as a ghetto party in the late fifties, achieved substantial electoral success and joined government, albeit in the face of fierce opposition from many EU states; who joined hands to keep the FPO leader Jorg Haider out of office. It is common knowledge that during the period the party was out of power its political position was anything but responsible. The FPÃâ€" opted for an aggressive campaigning style and employed political rhetoric that was often unbridled. Its core electoral issues included political corruption, over-foreignization (ÃÅ"berfremdung), (immigrant) criminality, the alleged arrogance of the EU and a celebration of the supposedly exemplary values of the little man. The fact that during this period the FPÃâ€" had no political responsibility whatsoever for national politics and was dismissed by its competitors as qualitatively unsuitable for government (not least precisely because of the unrestrained nature of its campaigning style), only made it all the easier for the party constantly to engage in irresponsible electoral outbidding of the then governing parties.[11] Interestingly, the FPO has lost a fair amount of support after it joined government. While this may possibly be due to the fact that governmental responsibility has required a toning down of irresponsible rhetoric, experts feel that the slump in popularity could also be due to the open hostility showed by the other EU states to the FPO’s participation in government in Austria. It is quite difficult to assess how these organisations will ultimately place themselves, or even to predict whether anti Semitism will replace the current anti Muslim feeling in Europe. However, it does seem apparent that most extreme right ideologies have a number of common tenets, possibly because they arise from the same universal insecurities, which concern trespass, a distrust of outsiders, a comfort in association with one’s own kind and an inherent desire for the stability provided by a father figure. It would also be quite logical to surmise that as all extreme right ideologies work on these insecurities; their solutions will also tend to be similar, modified only because of local political and social equations. Bibliography Antliff, Mark. Fascism, Modernism and Modernity. The Art Bulletin 84, no. 1 (2002): 148+. Berlet, Chip. The Right Rides High. The Progressive, October 1994, 22+. Blum, George P. The Rise of Fascism in Europe. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. . Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg ,London: Frank Cass, 2003 Eatwell, R, The Nature of ‘Generic Fascism, U. Backes (ed.), Rechsextreme Ideologien im 20 und 21 Jahhundert (Bohlau Verlag, Cologne) 2003retrieved 3 Jan 2006 from Eatwell, R, Chapter Two Ten Theories of the Extreme Right, in Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg ,London: Frank Cass, 2003, 53 Fascist as Epithet, Fascism, Wikipedia, 2006, retrieved Jan 3 2007 from Federici, Michael P. The Challenge of Populism: The Rise of Right-Wing Democratism in Postwar America. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1991. Hoffmann, Stanley. Why Dont They like Us? How America Has Become the Object of Much of the Planets Genuine Grievances-And Displaced Discontents. The American Prospect, November 19, 2001, 18+. Ignazi, Piero. Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. Luther, Kurt Richard, Chapter Eight The FpÃâ€": from Populist Protest to Incumbency, in Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg London: Frank Cass, 2003, 197, Lipset, Seymour Martin, and Earl Raab. The Politics of Unreason: Right Wing Extremism in America, 1790-1970. 1st ed. New York: Harper Row, 1970. Maerkl, Peter H. and Leonard Weinberg, eds. Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century. London: Frank Cass, 2003. Marfleet, Philip. The Clash Thesis: War and Ethnic Boundaries in Europe. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 25, no. 1-2 (2003): 71+. Michael, George. Confronting Right Wing Extremism and Terrorism in the USA. New York: Routledge, 2003 Miller, Marlowe A. Unveiling The Dialectic of Culture and Barbarism in British Pageantry: Virginia Woolfs Between the Acts.. Papers on Language Literature 34, no. 2 (1998): 134+. Minkenberg, Michael, and Martin Schain. Introduction. In Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Maerkl, Peter H. and Leonard Weinberg, 1-19. London: Frank Cass, 2003. Moore, Robert. Race, Class and Struggle: Essays on Racism and Inequality in Britain, the US and Western Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 26, no. 2 (2000): 372. . Morgan, Philip. Fascism in Europe, 1919-1945. London: Routledge, 2002. Mudde, C, The Ideology of the Extreme Right, Manchester University Press, Manchester, 2003 Passmore, Kevin. Fascism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002. . Pierce, R, Fascism, New Perspective, vol. 3, No. 1, 1997, retrieved 4 Jan 2007 Racism in Contemporary America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. Rensmann, Lars. The New Politics of Prejudice: Comparative Perspectives on Extreme Right Parties in European Democracies. German Politics and Society 21, no. 4 (2003): 93+. Rubinstein, Gidi. Right-Wing Authoritarianism, Political Affiliation Religiosity, and Their Relation to Psychological Androgyny. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 33, no. 7-8 (1995): 569+. Scheck, Raffael. Mothers of the Nation : Right-Wing Women in Weimar Germany /. New York: Berg, 2003. Swomley, John M. Neo-Fascism and the Religious Right. The Humanist, January/February 1995, 3+. Veen, Hans-Joachim, Norbert Lepszy, and Peter Mnich. The Republikaner Party in Germany: Right-Wing Menace or Protest Catchall?. Westport, CT: Praeger Paperback, 1993. Witt, Mary Ann Frese. The Search for Modern Tragedy: Aesthetic Fascism in Italy and France. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2001. 1 Footnotes [1] Michael Minkenberg, and Martin Schain, Introduction, in Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 3, [2] Robert Pierce, Fascism, New Perspective, vol. 3, No. 1, 1997, retrieved 4 Jan 2007 from> [3] Kevin Passmore, Fascism: A Very Short Introduction , Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002, [4] Fascist as Epithet, Fascism, Wikipedia, 2006, retrieved Jan 3 2007 from [5] Robert Pierce, Fascism [6] Eatwell, R, The Nature of ‘Generic Fascism, U. Backes (ed.), Rechsextreme Ideologien im 20 und 21 Jahhundert (Bohlau Verlag, Cologne) 2003 retrieved 3 Jan 2006 from [7] Lars Rensmann, The New Politics of Prejudice: Comparative Perspectives on Extreme Right Parties in European Democracies, German Politics and Society 21, no. 4 , 2003 [8] Lars Rensmann, The New Politics of Prejudice: Comparative Perspectives on Extreme Right Parties in European Democracies, [9] Cas Mudde, The Ideology of the Extreme Right (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003 [10] Roger Eatwell, Chapter Two Ten Theories of the Extreme Right, in Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg ,London: Frank Cass, 2003, 53 [11] Kurt Richard Luther, Chapter Eight The FpÃâ€": from Populist Protest to Incumbency, in Right-Wing Extremism in the Twenty-First Century ed. Peter H. Maerkl and Leonard Weinberg, London: Frank Cass, 2003, 197,

Friday, October 25, 2019

Skyscraper Building Code Revision Essay -- American History, September

Building Code Revision The attacks of September 11 were some of the worst ever experienced in the history of the United States. These attacks generated a widespread feeling of insecurity and uncertainty throughout America, compelling the government to revise safety measures and protocol pertaining to the wellbeing of the United States. However, some aspects of security under modification, such as building codes, are being questioned by many. The collapse of the twin towers, due to the impact from the airplanes, spurred a movement focused on strengthening the integrity of skyscrapers and other high-rise buildings throughout the United States. Though the terrorist attacks proved to be a tremendous tragedy, the application of measures this great is not seen as a proven necessity. The circumstances of the incident proved to be so extraordinary that dramatic modifications to the structure of building should not take place because of such an event. Therefore, the building codes of skyscrapers should not be chan ged due to the terrorist attacks of September 11. The modifications of existing building and the construction of new ones under the most recently proposed building codes would be too costly to implement. The billions of dollars would be required into order to perform the suggested renovations. Marolyn Davenport, a vice president at the Real Estate Board of New York and a member of the task force, states that, â€Å"Burdensome restrictions would make construction too expensive.† He goes on to say, â€Å"While you want to incorporate safety features, at the same time we have to compete with surrounding areas† (Qtd. in Chan 1). Buildings that would fall subject to the new building codes would be given an unfair advantage in the competitiv... ...state and local governments to drastically revise the skyscraper building codes in the United States. It would cost far too much money to implement all of the standards that are being requested by state legislatures. In addition, there are many methods that have proven to be more effective means of reducing the threat of terrorism surrounding this country. Though some of the suggested codes have been passed and are now currently in the code, an instant change to building regulations is unlikely. The need for many of these modifications is still under debate and their fates are yet to be determined. Good has come out of the efforts to modify high-rise construction codes, but the potentially beneficial aspects are far outweighed by the negative. Skyscrapers stand tall despite the terrible events of 9/11 and should not be unnecessarily altered because of them.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

How major minerals differentiate from trace minerals

How are the major minerals differentiated from the hint minerals? What are 2 factors that can diminish bioavailability of a mineral? What are 3 maps of minerals in the organic structure? Minerals that we need to devour more than 100mg per twenty-four hours see as major mineral, minerals that we need to devour less than 100mg per twenty-four hours is considered as trace mineral ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . The bioavailability of a mineral is referred to a step of the proportion of the sum in a diet that is absorbed and utilized for normal organic structure map. The sum of mineral that is absorbed from the GI piece of land determines their bioavailability. However it is different between minerals. Bioavailability is affected by the interactions with other dietetic constituents in the GI piece of land. For illustration, vitamin C enhances iron soaking up but tannins suppress it. Besides, the looks of cellular transporters, which allow the mineworkers to be transported into blood stream from stomachic lms, besides affect the bioavailability. When there is less transported, intending the mineral will hold lower bioavailability ( Harvey, L 2001 ) . Minerals in our organic structure keep the H2O balance in our organic structure. The concentration of the minerals in and out of the cells drives the H2O in and out of the cells. When the concentration of Na is higher in the cell, the H2O will travel into the cell through osmosis. Besides, Na, K and Ca assistance in the transmittal of nervousnesss urges throughout the organic structure. In the absence of Ca, musculus contractions will ne'er happen. Some minerals like Mg, Cu and Se act as cofactors and enable enzymes to transport out chemical reactions ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . What are the chief maps of Na and how is extra Na eliminated from the organic structure? Intakes of salt in the Australian diet remain high ; explicate why there is a demand for Na at all in the diet. What are some schemes for diminishing Na in the diet? Excess Na is eliminated out of the organic structure by micturition. When the Na degree is high in our organic structure, we have higher blood force per unit area. This reduces the production of chymosin enzyme by kidney. Therefore, angiotensinogen is less produced, so angiotesin II is non form. Angiotesin II helps in the release of aldosterone by adrenal secretory organ. Since the permeableness of kidney tubule is controlled by the aldosterone, the kidney tubule is non permeable to sodium when the Na degree in blood is high. Therefore, the Na is so excreted together with H2O in the signifier of piss ( Campbell et al. 2009 ) . Sodium helps in the soaking up of glucose and some aminic acids in little bowel. Besides, it is of import in musculus contraction and presenting the nervus impulse through the nervus cells. Muscle contraction and nervus impulse conductivity is conducted by the shifting of both the K and Na ion across the nervus cell membrane. Sodium besides aids in H2O balance. Sodium is the chief solute in extracellular fluid. It regulates the ECF and plasma volume. When the sum of Na in organic structure additions, more H2O is retained in our organic structure until extra Na is excreted ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . There is a demand for Na at all in the diet because salt is of import in the agitation of nutrients. Fermentation preserves nutrients for due to the suppression of peculiar types of bugs. Salt inhibits the growing of spoilage bacteriums and Fungis that present in the nutrient. Salt besides helps to pull H2O and sugars out of works tissues during agitation of veggies which reduces O and prevents the growing of lactic acid bacteriums. Salt is besides used in the processing of merchandises such as sausages and restructured meats. The presence of salt solubilizes myofibrillar proteins that are indissoluble in H2O. It helps to pull out these salt-soluble proteins to the surface of the meat and lodge the little pieces of meat together during cookery ( National Center for Biotechnology Information 2010 ) . Schemes for diminishing Na in the diet are to cook the nutrient with small salt. Beside, nutrient can be prepared with sodium-free flavoring such as basil, bay foliages, curry, garlic and ginger. Last, ever choice low-salt merchandise or salt-free merchandises when available ( Rolfes, Pinna & A ; Whitney 2006 ) . Where is most K in the organic structure found? What are 2 serious upsets linked to low K consumptions? Why is hyperkalemia rare? Potassium is largely found in the cells of the organic structure and performs many of the same maps as Na. Low blood K is known as hypokalemia. It is a life endangering disease. Low K can besides do high blood force per unit area. Hyperkalemia is rare because even though the consumption of K is high, the extra K is readily excreted by kidney ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . What are the maps of Mg in the diet? Where is Mg in the organic structure found and what are the symptoms of Mg lack. Which groups are most likely to be magnesium deficient? Magnesium is of import in stabilising the ATP by adhering to the phosphate group of this molecule. Magnesium is needed by more than 300 enzymes that utilize ATP, including those required for energy metamorphosis, musculus contraction and protein synthesis. Magnesium is besides needed for Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA synthesis. Its function in Ca metamorphosis contributes to cram construction to cram construction and mineralization. It is besides of import for nervus transmittal, bosom and smooth musculus contraction. It besides decreases blood force per unit area by distending the arterias, prevents bosom beat abnormalcies and protect against bilestone formation ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . Magnesium is chiefly stored in bone. Magnesium lack causes irregular pulse, sometimes accompanied by failing, musculus cramp, freak out, sickness, purging and ictuss. This is due to the damage of Na and K pumping ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . Magnesium lack most frequently occurs in people who have been fed intravenously for a long clip, whose diet does n't incorporate adequate Mg, or who are unable to absorb and egest the mineral decently ( Harvey 2001 ) . Describe the function of Ca in the patterned advance of osteoporosis, including in your drumhead an overview of Ca metamorphosis, demands in the lifecycle and Ca beginnings. Further discourse how make parathyroid endocrine and vitamin D regulate serum Ca? Osteoporosis is a disease caused by the low consumption of Ca. When Ca consumption is unequal, organic structure withdraws Ca s from the bone to maintain the indispensable map of Ca. For illustration, Ca is needed to maintain our musculus catching ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) . Bone formation needs Ca and P and other minerals. As bone begins to organize, Ca salts and phosphorus signifier crystal, hydroapatite, and bind with the collagen fibres. As the crystal become denser ( mineralization ) , they give strength and rigidness to the maturating castanetss. Collagen protein allows the skeleton to absorb impact. When Ca degree in blood is low, parathyroid endocrine is released by parathyroid secretory organ. This endocrine associated with 1,25 ( OH ) 2 vitamin D stimulate the release of Ca from the bone into blood stream to increase the Ca degree in blood. Besides, the endocrine besides increases the consumption of Ca in bowel to increase blood Ca degree. Third, parathyroid secretory organ besides increases blood Ca in association with 1,25 ( OH ) 2 vitamin D to increase the kidneysaa‚Â ¬a„? resorption of Ca which eventually prevent the elimination of Ca. When blood Ca degree is high, the release of parathyroid endocrine falls. This causes the Ca elimination via the piss to increase. The synthesis of 1,25 ( OH ) 2 vitamin D besides decreases, doing bead in Ca soaking up. Besides, thyroid secretory organ secretes hormone calcitonin which prevents the Ca from loss from castanetss. The Ca degree in blood eventually back to norm al degree. Calciums are usually come from yoghurt, milk and cereal ( Bryd-Bredbenner et al. 2009 ) .

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Nuremberg Trials

Where Nazi officials judged fairly during the Nuremburg Trails that followed World War II? Twenty-four major political and military leaders of Nazi Germany, indicted for aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Of the twenty-four twenty-one were taken into custody and put on trial; these were known as the Nuremberg Trials. These trials started on November 20th 1945 and were the first ever war crime tribunal. The Trials were held by the Allied forces of World War II and were held in the city of Nuremberg in Bavaria Germany out of the Palace of Justice.Accusations placed against them were for their involvement in the Nazi Party during World War II. Nazi officials were judged unfairly during the Nuremburg Trails for a continent wide genocide that occurred within WWII and the world watched as Nazi officials got what they deserved. Lead by Adolf Hitler the Third Riech, the government in Germany at the time, adopted policies of aggressive war and persecuted minorities. Hitl er started a Europe wide systematic killing of approximately six million Jews called the Holocaust. â€Å"Holocaust† is a word of Greek origin meaning â€Å"sacrifice by fire†. USHMM). The Nazis, who came into power in Germany in 1933, believed that Germans were the superior race and deemed all others inferior, mainly the Jews, and viewed them as a threat to the community. Nearly two out of three Jews that lived in Europe at the time lost their lives due to the systematic killing. (USHMM). After establishing concentration camps to detain political and people of importance in opposing forces, Germany’s SS and police officials detained Jews and other victims of ethnic and racial hatred in these camps.The idea was to concentrate and monitor the Jewish population and also to make later deportation of the Jews easier. These camps changed into labor camps and eventually assisted in the systematic killing. Germany invaded territories and began to expand early into Hitl er’s reign, such as Czechoslovakia and Poland. After the victory in Poland, Germany began to make its way into Denmark, France, and many others making concentration camps along the way to assist in the genocide. One of the most infamous concentration camps was known as Auschwitz, based in Poland under the command of Rudolf Hoss.Auschwitz eventually became the largest Nazi camp and had an estimated total of over two million victims. The killing and building of concentration camps continue throughout 1941 and eventually become or were determined to be extermination camps. Germans begin experiments and other inhumane practices on prisoners which grows the tension throughout Europe. Towards the end of the war Nazi officials order liquidation of Jews in ghettos, a city locked down by German SS containing Jews, and in some camps, this meant the execution of the prisoners and workers. During the era of the Holocaust, German authorities also targeted other groups because of their per ceived â€Å"racial inferiority†: Roma (Gypsies), the disabled, and some of the Slavic people (Poles, Russians, and others). Other groups were persecuted on political, ideological, and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals (USHMM). During the final months of the war, SS guards moved camp prisoners by train or marches, often called â€Å"death marches,† to try to stop and prevent the Allied liberation of large numbers of prisoners.As Allied forces moved across Europe in a series of offensives against Germany, they began to encounter and liberate concentration camp prisoners, as well as prisoners en route by forced march from one camp to another. The marches continued until May 7, 1945, the day the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. In the aftermath of the Holocaust, many of the survivors found shelter in displaced persons camps administered by the Allied powers. Between 1948 and 1951, almo st 700,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, including 136,000 Jewish displaced persons from Europe.Other Jewish DPs emigrated to the United States and other nations (USHMM). The twenty-two officials were being tried for aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Herman Goring, the second highest ranking Nazi Official, he was the Commander of the Luftwaffe, Germany’s air force. Goering was perhaps the most influential person, next to Hitler, in the Nazi organization. He was one of only 12 Nazis elected to the Reichstag in 1928. He orchestrated the Reichstag fire on February 27, 1933 and, with Goebbels assistance, used the fire as a propaganda tool against the communists.In the mid-1930's Goering was in charge of the â€Å"Aryanization† of Jewish property (JVL). Goring was sentenced to death but committed suicide the night before his execution with a cyanide capsule. Rudolf Hess served as Hitler’s deputy minister and was next in line if Goering should be u navailable for any reason. Rudolf Hess was sentenced to life imprisonment. He served over 40 years of that sentence at Spandau Prison and committed suicide in 1987 at age 93 (JVL). Hans Frank, Governor-General of the general government in Poland during World War II, was sentenced to death.Under his administration the approximately 2. 5 million Jews in the occupied territories of Poland were exploited in slave labor. Also during his administration, the extermination camps in eastern Poland were constructed implemented (JVL). Wilhelm Frick, Hitler’s Minister of the Interior, was sentenced to death due to his significant role in the formation of Nazi racial laws. He was credited with the creation of Nuremberg Laws of 1935 and 1938; laws were intended to take away rights and privileges formerly allowed to Jews.However, Julius Streicher was non-military, he was not part of the planning process of the Holocaust, nor of the invasion of Poland or the Soviet Union. But his role in pro voking the massacre of Jews was momentous enough; he was sentenced to death by hanging. Walther Funk, Hitler’s Minister of Economics and was head of the Reichsbank, which funded the economic planning for the war; he was sentenced to Life Imprisonment. Fritz Sauckel was a general for the allocation of labor. Sauckel was involved in using 5 million laborers that were imported and forced to work.He was charged with the solicitation of slave labor and sentenced to death by handing. Alfred Jodl was Chief of Operations for the German Army, he was charged with aggressive war for invasion of the Soviet Union and the destruction of Czechoslovakia. Martin Bormann was known to be uncivilized, ruthless, and brutal. His whereabouts were unconfirmed during the trials but he made such an impact that he was sentenced in absentia to death by hanging; his reputation was based on the expulsion of millions of Jews to Poland and the exploitation of Ukrainian women as slave labor.Going down the li st we find Franz von Papen, Vice Chancellor of Germany, he supported views of Hitler but the prosecution had serious difficulties linking Papen to conspiracy to initiate an aggressive war. He was eventually one of the few that were acquitted. Joachim Von Ribbentrop had recommended and supported the deportation of Jews from France and Italy to the camps in the east and urged their extermination. Under cross-examination by the British assistant prosecutor, Ribbentrop admitted that he knew of Hitler’s intention to deport all Jews from German territories and that he assisted in that process.Ribbentrop was sentenced to death by hanging (JVL). The International Military Tribunal finished its work and handed down its verdicts on October 1, 1946, ironically, on the Jewish Day of Atonement. Of the 22 defendants, 11 were given the death penalty, 3 were acquitted, 3 were given life imprisonment and four were given imprisonment ranging from 10 to 20 years. Those sentenced to death were h anged at Spandau Prison on October 6, 1946. Those acquitted were placed in the inept de-Nazification program following the trial. Those who received prison sentences were sent to Spandau Prison.The death sentences were carried out 16 October 1946 by hanging using the standard drop method instead of long drop. The U. S. army denied claims that the drop length was too short which caused the condemned to die slowly from strangulation instead of quickly from a broken neck. But evidence remains that some of the condemned men died agonizingly slowly taking from between 14 minutes to choke to death to as longs as struggling for 28 minutes. The executioner was John C. Woods. The executions took place in the gymnasium of the court building which was demolished in 1983. In his closing remarks Robert Jackson, said â€Å"The reality is that in the long perspective of history the present century will not hold an admirable position, unless its second half is to redeem its first. These two-score years in the twentieth century will be recorded in the book of years as one of the most bloody in all annals. Two World Wars have left a legacy of dead which number more than all the armies engaged in any way that made ancient or medieval history. No half-century ever witnessed slaughter on such a scale, such cruelties and inhumanities, such wholesale deportations of peoples into slavery, such annihilations of minorities.The terror of Torquemada pales before the Nazi Inquisition. These deeds are the overshadowing historical facts by which generations to come will remember this decade. If we cannot eliminate the causes and prevent the repetition of these barbaric events, it is not an irresponsible prophecy to say that this twentieth century may yet succeed in bringing the doom of civilization†Ã¢â‚¬  (JVL). For most of the world, the Nuremberg Trials were a symbolic expression of outrage over the atrocities of the Nazi organization.Once done, however, it seems that the major co ncern was to put the whole matter in the past and forget it. To use Justice Jackson’s words, that we have eliminated â€Å"the causes† and laid the basis for preventing â€Å"the repetition of these barbaric events. † In words that might portray his view today, what happened was now in history books around the world, and if something like this ever did happen again we would have a basis to be able to punish them correctly and more effectively. Not only having the basis but also having this also as a deterrent to those in later generations who may try something like this again.The question if justice was actually served can be debated for centuries because of the amount of devastation the men were involved in. Two distinct punishments of history and justice during the examination and action of Nazi war crimes and crimes against humanity has been the theme of debate ever since the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal. This was particularly debatable, and more times than not it was poorly understood, by the role of historians in the trials of National Socialist perpetrators of genocide.Addressing this issue in its logical, practical and real-world scopes, even though the objectives were similar, a comparative analysis demonstrates that both law and justice benefited from this interaction. Assuming that the humanities and injustices were served correctly and done so in a civilized manor, which in my views it was, but I believe it almost wasn’t enough. The Nazi officials had no problem knowingly and publicly displaying their views to the entire world and were not afraid during war time.Once war was over and they were at the mercy of the world they publicly embarrassed, the officials knew nothing of the plans or how they were executed, almost like they were never involved. Said best by Henry David Thoreau, â€Å"It is not a man’s duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself to the eradication of any, even the most enormous wrong; he may still properly have other concerns to encourage him; but it is his duty, at least, to wash his hands of it, and, if he gives it no thought longer, not to give him practically his support.If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations, I must first see, at least, that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man’s shoulders† (RWLA). In other words, as a man, he has the knowing ability to dedicate himself to what he wishes; it was the Nazi official’s choice to stand with Hitler and support his ideas. Maybe some were afraid of death if they didn’t comply but as a man it is his obligation to own up to it and not blame the views of Hitler of his actions.The action and paths these men picked put them down a dark road and they paid for it. Millions of people exterminated to support one mad man’s views, and when all was said and done and defeat was admitted no one wanted to admit the monstrosities they assisted in. James Fenimore Coo per’s The Slaughter of the Pigeons, Cooper talks about the sport of killing pigeons becoming more for business and less for sport. â€Å"This expident produced the desired effect , for every urchin on the ground went industriously to work to wring the necks of the wounded birds.Judge Temple retired towards his dwelling with that kind of feeling that many a man has experienced before him, who discovers, after the excitement of the moment has passed, that he has purchased pleasure at the price of misery to others. Horses were loaded with the dead; and ,after this first burst of sporting, the shooting of pigeons became a business, for the remainder of the season, more in proportion to the wants of the people. I liked this excerpt especially because I believe as it was almost written with the Nuremburg Trials in mind. Pigeons can be interchanged with those killed during the Holocaust. To an extent, the killing and â€Å"purification† went on for so long that it, at least in my eyes, became a business for many of these officials. With the world watching, 22 defendants, 11 were given the death penalty, 3 were acquitted, 3 were given life imprisonment and four were given imprisonment ranging from 10 to 20 years.Nazi officials had no problem expressively and openly displaying their views to the entire world and were not afraid during war time but once war was over and they were at the mercy of the world they publicly embarrassed, and they were treated fairly and got their just deserts, maybe not enough sprinkles. Works Cited De Nevers, Renee. â€Å"Modernizing the Geneva Conventions. † The Washington Quarterly 29. 2 (2006): 99-113. Project MUSE. Web. . Haberer, E. â€Å"History and Justice: Paradigms of the Prosecution of Nazi Crimes. Holocaust and Genocide Studies 19. 3 (2005): 487-519. Project MUSE. Web. . James, Missy, and Alan Merickel. Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Boston: Longman, 2011. Print. Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedi ence 245-259 James, Missy, and Alan Merickel. Reading Literature and Writing Argument. Boston: Longman, 2011. Print. James Fenimore Cooper, The Slaughter of the Pigeons. 277-283 Prusin, Alexander V. â€Å"Poland's Nuremberg. † The Seven Court Cases of the Supreme National Tribunal, 1946-1948 24. 1 (2010): n. pag. Project

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Meaning of Faith †World Religion Essay

The Meaning of Faith – World Religion Essay Free Online Research Papers The Meaning of Faith World Religion Essay Sharon Salzber is a Buddist teacher who studied in Asia and soon after brought the teachings to the US in the 1970s. In 1976 she founded the Insight Meditation Society in Massachusetts Salzber considers â€Å"Faith† an unusual word as it relates to the teachings of the Buddha. The word is generally thought of as what happens when someone loses self respect however Salzber is attempting to redefine the word by associating it with having the confidence to continue on when you don’t know something. The word faith when translated into â€Å"Poly† it is pronounced â€Å"Sada†, literally meaning to the place the heart upon. More liberal interpretations have suggested confidence, clarity, and or trust. Salzber explains that in buddism there are fazes of faith. First being the Bright Faith faze that is considered to be when a person first realizes the teachings of the Buddha and is released from the confinements of their prior life. A sense of great relief and yet a overwhelming sense of the size of the world both are shared. The second faze is Verified Faith in which the student has moved on to practice a more enlightened truth in which nothing is excepted as truth until it is experienced first hand. The movement from Bright to Verified involves a considerable amount of doubt because without questioning reality how will you ever know what is true or real. Faith in other religions is sometimes associated with death and what will happen to your soul at this point. This is thought in Buddism to be more a result of fear then true faith. â€Å"When beliefs are held to tightly then we use them to block our own growth†. At the same time faith in Buddha as a god figure is not needed because he is not. Rather faith in human being. Faith in the way Buddha described each moments experience and that they are of value. Lastly Faith in the community of people that you have around. Anne Lamott is not a traditional fundamentalist Christian who believes that faith is more a spiritual concept then a religious one. In fact she goes as far as to say â€Å"Fundamentalism is the great evil in this world. It is a conviction of being right and that you have the right to deny other people instead of everyone is a child of God.† Lamott’s appeal is that she is a raw speaker who does not flower her thoughts of the world. She is aware that people are getting their faith off the book shelves and not from real interaction with other people acting out the works of faith that she feels are so important. â€Å"Faith is a verb. What joins all of us in faith is that we believe in a various of the golden rule or karma if you want approcots that you cant grow them from tomatoes.† Lamott’s struggle on the streets lead to her having a child. It so kicked to peices her ideas of having great life and having a lot of success. After having a baby she became desperate and clingy. She excepted that she cant see far and doesn’t know everything but she knows she will make it. â€Å"Like driving a car at night you cant see very far but you can get where your going.† Omid Safi is a Muslim Theologian and a Professor of philosphy and religion at Colgate University. He is also the editor of Progressive Muslims. He begins the conversation with talking about his meaning of faith. †We have submitted is better then saying we have faith. Faith is not yet entered into your hearts. It is possible to be formally Muslim and not have actualized the beauty of faith.† Having faith means that you worship God as though actually see him and at times when you struggle to feel like you can see him realize that he always see’s you. Religion is the lowest common denominator according Safi. Faith is the 2nd. Esson actualizing goodness and realizing beauty, to live life as though you see God is what every person of faith should seek. Rabbi Lawrence Kushner is thought by many as one most creative thinkers of our time. He stated that when he first heard the name of the show that he assumed it was primarly a Christian program because faith is not a word used as much with Judaism. One of the reasons why it is hard to speak of faith is because we are talking about the stuff that we are. Juddaism is more organized around deeds then beliefs. It has given up on trying to figure out the motivation behind a deed. â€Å"Because if you wait until you believe in it hell could freeze over better to just do it because it is the right thing.† Speaking about faith is not comforting or pastoruel conversation as it forces you to open up and truly question what you believe and accept that you may learn something new that will change your previous thoughts all together. Rabbi Kushner emphasizes that faith follows action. Research Papers on The Meaning of Faith - World Religion EssayBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementMind TravelHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows EssayCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionCapital PunishmentHip-Hop is ArtAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 Europe

Monday, October 21, 2019

Greenland essays

Greenland essays The geography of Greenland is quite ironic considering its name. Greenland is Located in the northern part of North America. It is between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada. Greenlands area is approximately 2,715,600 square kilometers. Its area is slightly more than 3 times the size of Texas. It is the largest island in the world. It is also primarily by the Davis Strait and Baffin Bay and from Iceland on the east, by the Denmark Strait. Greenlands terrain is flat to a gradually sloping icecap. It covers everything but a narrow, mountainous, rocky coast. Its climate has cool summers and very cold winters! During the summertime in the southern part of Greenland, the average Temperature is 48Â ° Fahrenheit. The climate of Greenland is generally dry. People have lived on Greenland for about 5, 000 years, the earliest belonging to what are called the Independence I, Saqqaq, and Independence II cultures. Greenland is the source of many weather changes in the Northern Hemisphere. Their natural resources include Zinc, lead, iron ore, coal, gold, platinum, uranium, fish, seals and whales. The mammals include the musk-ox, wolf, lemming, and reindeer. Circumpolar animals that inhabit the island are the polar bear, arctic fox, polar hare, and stoat. The environmental issues consist of protecting the arctic environment and preservation of their traditional way of life, including whaling. The population of Greenland is 59, 827 people. They are called Greenlanders and the majority religion is Evangelical Lutheran. Their languages include Eskimo dialects, Danish, and Greenlandic (An Inuit dialect.). The age structure is 0-14 years 26%; 15-64 68%; 65-? 6%. The total life expectancy is male 65.98 years and female 74.24 years. The total life expectancy population is to 70 years. ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

C for Beginners - Learn About C

C for Beginners - Learn About C C is a general purpose programming language invented in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs. It is similar to C, invented in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie, but is a safer language than C and includes modern programming techniques such as object-oriented programming. You can read more about object-oriented programming. C was originally called C with Classes and is so compatible with C that it will probably compile more than 99% of C programs without changing a line of source code. This was a deliberate design feature by the designer. Here are a short overview and history of C. The purpose of C is to precisely define a series of operations that a computer can perform to accomplish a task. Most of these operations involve manipulating numbers and text, but anything that the computer can physically do can be programmed in C. Computers have no intelligence- they have to be told exactly what to do and this is defined by the programming language you use. Once programmed they can repeat the steps as many times as you wish at very high speed. Modern PCs are so fast they can count to a billion in a second or two. What Can a C Program Do? Typical programming tasks include  putting data into a database or pulling it out, displaying high-speed graphics in a game or video, controlling electronic devices attached to the PC or even playing music and/or sound effects. You can even write software to generate music or help you compose. Is C the Best Programming Language? Some computer languages were written for a specific purpose. Java was originally devised to control toasters, C for programming Operating Systems, Pascal to teach good programming techniques but C is a general purpose language and well deserves the Swiss Pocket Knife of Languages nickname. Some tasks can be done in C but not very easily, for example designing GUI screens for applications. Other languages like Visual Basic, Delphi and more recently C# have GUI design elements built into them and so are better suited for this type of task. Also, some scripting languages that provide extra programmability to applications like MS Word and even Photoshop tend to be done in variants of Basic, not C. You can find out more about the other computer languages and how they stack up against C. Which Computers Have C? This is better stated as which computers dont have C! The answer- almost none, it is so widespread. It is a nearly universal programming language and can be found on most microcomputers all the way up to big computers costing millions of dollars. There are C compilers for just about every type of operating system.   How Do I Get Started With C? First, you need a C compiler. There are many commercial and free ones available. The list below has instructions for downloading and installing each of the compilers. All three are completely free and include an IDE to make life easier for you to edit, compile and debug your applications. Download and Install Borlands Turbo C ExplorerDownload and Install Microsofts Visual C 2005 Express EditionDownload and Install Open Watcom C/C Compiler The instructions also show you how to enter and compile your first C application. How Do I Begin Writing C Applications? C is written using a text editor. This can be notepad or an IDE like those supplied with the three compilers listed above. You write a computer program as a series of instructions (called statements) in a notation that looks a little like mathematical formulas. This is saved out in a text file and then compiled and linked to generate machine code which you then can run. Every application you use on a computer will have been written and compiled like this, and many of them will be written in C. Read more about compilers and how they work. You cant usually get hold of the original source code unless it was open source. Is There Plenty of C Open Source? Because it is so widespread, much open source software has been written in C. Unlike commercial applications, where the source code is owned by a business and never made available, open-source code can be viewed and used by anyone. Its an excellent way to learn coding techniques.   Could I Get a Programming Job? Certainly. There are many C jobs out there and an immense body of code exists that will need updating, maintaining and occasionally rewriting. The top three most popular programming languages according to the quarterly survey, are Java, C, and C. You could write your own games but youll need to be artistic or have an artist friend. Youll also need music and sound effects. Find out more about game development. Perhaps a professional 9-5 career would suit you better- read about a professional career or perhaps consider entering the world of software engineering writing software to control nuclear reactors, aircraft, space rockets or for other safety-critical areas. What Tools and Utilities Are There? Well if you cant find what you want, you could always write it. That is how most of the tools around came into existence.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Research #2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Research #2 - Essay Example This trend is relatively new and not all operating systems have completely embraced it totally, however this is slowly creeping into the field of medical science enabling more benefits for patient care. With introduction of the concept of online applications that are patented by the given operating systems, large number of Health care associated applications are available in the online market which entail the different domains of health care, such as diagnosis of numerous diseases, serving as a guide and manual, remedial actions suggestion, medical dictionaries, medicine names, nearby pharmacies and numerous other sources that facilitate the health care sector in a positive way. Certain pre requisites apply to the usage of health care applications on the medium of mobile phone. These entail the regulatory body instructions, the clients awareness level, establishing of policies for its promotion, the market promotion policies, their availability factor, language use factor and various other factors that must be taken into account while handling health care applications and promoting them. 6. Overview of the F.D.A role in terms of the present day rules in place and the future considerations, with mobile phones becoming part of nearly every individual’s life, regulations are needed to be brought into action. Numerous operating systems have launched applications for use in the health care. Apple Inc. is one of the leaders in this field. It launched this service couple of years ago. IMedicalApps is one sush endeavor undertaken by Apple Inc. and it has a number of applications under its belt that facilitate better health care knowledge and awareness. The Android Operating system is not far behind and it has introduced numerous applications for the same purpose. Apart from the mobile application provides, other PSTN enabled networks are also aiming to catch up fast on the applications. Verizon is one of them that has joined the bandwagon in recent times

Friday, October 18, 2019

Human Rights Law Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Human Rights Law - Essay Example As part of the global war on terror, governments have embraced various torturous tactics including extraordinary rendition against the suspects. Basically, the suspects are not given a chance to challenge their arrest in court and are held incommunicado. They are held and interrogated through methods that amount to torture and breach of human rights. In most cases, the suspects are tried by foreign governments and sometimes executed. Recently, a study carried out by the European parliament concluded that extraordinary rendition results to multiple human right violations such as unwarranted arrests, torture, false trials, inhumane treatment, and deprivation of liberty and to the worst death. According to both Human rights committee and committee against torture, extra ordinary rendition violates a number of provisions set out in conventions against torture. Under the Rome Statute, which established the International Criminal Court (ICC), rendition infringes on several human rights including deprivation of liberty as outlined by Article 7(1) (e), disappearance of individuals and Article 7(1) (i) torture Article 7(1) (f), which are termed as an attack on civilians. The Security Council resolution of 1483 requires all nations to play their part under the Geneva Convention of 1949. According to General Taguba, all detainees should be accorded the full protection of Geneva convection. Article 49 of the fourth Geneva Convection requires deportations and forcible transfers of persons to be protected despite the underlying motive. . The European Court of Human rights requires that all movement of people from one jurisdiction to another regardless of whether it is deportation, extradition or rendition to observe the procedures set out under international and domestic laws. In Bozano v. France1, the court ruled that the procedures laid down affects the legality of holding an individual besides the validity of the transfer. The United Kingdom is not bound by any treaty in ensuring that its airports and airspace are not used for rendition practices. However, cruel and inhumane acts of torture are not allowed by United Nations Commission Against Torture (UNCAT) as defined by Article 1. In addition, Article 16 states that, â€Å"†¦ in particular, the obligations contained in Articles 10,11,12 and 13 shall apply with substitution for references to torture or references to other forms of cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment†. These Articles refer to rules that should be observed during the in terrogation process. Article 3 of UNCAT prohibit forceful extradition of any individual to a state where one is believed to be susceptible to torture and other forms of ill treatment. However, the UK is bound by the International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights and the ECHR not to engage in extradition of any person to any place that pose risk for ill treatment or torturous acts. Article 3 of UNCAT provides that all transfers including those that are extralegal should comply with the legal procedures of extradition. Otherwise, breach of the principle could result to state responsibility. The transit state and the sending state may avoid liability under the international law through diplomatic assurances between the officials of the two states that the person in question will not be subjected to ill treatment or torture. Moreover, it is argued that such diplomatic assur

Professional Liability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Professional Liability - Essay Example In case the patient or his relatives, friends suffer a loss due to the negligent deed of the professional they can seek a civil claim to compensate for the loss. This is called professional liability. The online Medical dictionary offers the following definition of professional liability: this is the legal obligation of health care practitioner to recompense patients for causing damage or suffering by actions of omission. Professional liability is characterized by the responsibility of the healthcare professional to the patients for malpractice. It has become common in the medical profession to have insurance for negligence. I believe it should be obligatory for every nurse to protect her career by purchasing an insurance coverage. In this way she will be protected from the cost of legal and board of nursing actions. No nurse starts her education having in mind the malpractice lawsuits. Even when she begins practising this is not something she would like to think about. All nurses go into the professional with a profound dedication and commitment and with the genuine desire to help and serve people. However, as much as I don’t want to admit it, there is a certain risk involved in healthcare occupations, which stems mainly from the fact that the nurse is a licensed healthcare specialist. What should not be underestimated is that any nursing professional can be held liable and sued for negligence, regardless of how competent they are. Below are few examples under what circumstances a nurse can be sued: If a nurse makes a mistake while monitoring a patient, (or even if someone else accuses you of this); Someone admits a nurse has made an error in recording or reporting patient’s healthcare details and history; A doctor asserts that a nurse misinterpreted the directions he gave; A patient or his family/relatives admits the nurse did not delivered adequate care to the patient; If a nurse is off duty and she assists someone with an injury or any other h ealth problem and they make a claim for negligence; A nurse can also be prosecuted if someone under her superintendence makes a mistake. In addition, if the hospital or the doctor is sued instead of the nurse, both of them can amend and sue the nurse in return. It is not an easy situation and once the nurse has been prosecuted she might be required to go to court. From there, if the jury decides that the nurse did not indeed implement the â€Å"established nursing procedures† she can be held liable for thousands. This can happen even if the jury has no clue about nursing and the nurse will be criminally responsible for her deeds. I think nurses should be advised at universities about the risks of their profession and this should not be done to scare them, but to inform them and create self-consciousness. New nurses have to enter the profession with their eyes open and be aware that the more they know about the â€Å"small pitfalls† of their field the more capable they will be to act and react within the law and protect themselves against potential prosecution. Most hospitals provide individual or collective professional liability insurance coverage if the nurse is licensed healthcare representative. Some nurses prefer to buy supplement to the employer’s insurance coverage for their own personal reassurance and protection. One of the ways to proactively avoid or prevent negligence is to discipline nurses. Iyer (2001) says that the board of nursing may reprimand, give

Australian aboriginal perspectives in the classroom Assignment

Australian aboriginal perspectives in the classroom - Assignment Example Aboriginal people were hunters and gatherers where they hunted and foraged for food in their lands. Australian Aborigines had a shared responsibility where women would go to the field to gather bellies, nuts and other wild foods. Additionally, they were nomadic as they moved from one area to another in search of food due to the changing seasons (Kanu, 2011). British colonization of Australia caused various problems to the Aboriginal people as the first epidemic that faced them was diseases such as Measles, smallpox and tuberculosis that killed people. Additionally, the British settlement appropriated their land and water resources. In that, today a major issue that the aboriginals face is proving land ownership. The Aboriginal people lack of trust of white society as they think of them as oppressors and bad people. This is because they introduced alcohol and poisoned aboriginal people with diseases that they were not immune to as well as, raping their women and killing their children (Broome, 2010). To the Aboriginal people colonization meant genocide and oppression because they were denied the right to live their lives under their rule, customs and policies. For that reason, the Aboriginal people lost trust on the white, however, today they have become accepting as the laws have changed, and their children have been given the right to education, work and freedom of expression among other things. There is cultural diversity in the Aboriginal people, for example, before the arrival of Europeans there were more than 250 languages that were spoken by indigenous. Today there are only 15 languages that are spoken by all age groups. The belief system of the Aboriginal people is not definite although most people are said to be affiliated with the Christian denomination while a few of the Aborigines are affiliated with Islam. Aboriginals believed in

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Sustainability Project Spain Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Sustainability Project Spain - Research Paper Example This has lead to use of sustainable designs whose goals are to expose architectural solutions that guarantee the coexistence of inorganic and living organisms. Conceptual framework informs architects on the various ways to meet the goal of sustainable designs. In undertaking sustainable projects, three principles are used. The first principle aims at economizing on the resources for the architects to reduce the use of the non-renewable materials in the establishment and operation of the building. In a construction site, materials continuously flow in and out of the building. The flow incorporates the movement of materials from the industries that provide the building materials throughout the life span of the building to get a good nature that support continuation of humans as well as their activities. The second principle is the life cycle model has the support on the usefulness of resources where resources are useful depending on the area of application. The third concept of sustain able design is the humane design probably the most important of all three principles. The concept has an emphasis on the respect towards other living organisms within the ecosystem and these include plants and animals. The other two principles are not considered highly valuable in comparison to the humane design idea because they require more on the efficiency and conservation than on the ecosystem. The paper will discuss the sustainability project in Spain and the various features of the building and standards instituted by the Spanish building standards as well as the importance of sustainability in construction. In the sustainable project, in Barcelona, the building standards have to be taken into consideration, and these standards have an emphasis on the protection of the ecosystem. The standards include the energy standards, which have elevated Spain to higher grounds in terms of solar energy all over Europe.

Performance Management Evaluation Research Paper

Performance Management Evaluation - Research Paper Example The performance was evaluated keeping the standard appraisal in mind. The method used in this task to evaluate the individuals was peer rating. Peer rating is the method of appraisal in which the one individual is asked to rate the other peers on the basis of their performance. After the introduction of incentives, it was observed that the performance of individuals increased many folds and people were more eager to work on the task. Simply put, Performance management can be stated as the kind of management that keeps a check on the ongoing progress and ensures that goals are being met in an effective and efficient manner. Meeting the required goals that individuals or groups have set up for themselves is of very high significance and studying the effect of the factors that hamper or catalyze the performance is equally important. By understanding the effect of the factors we come in a better position to control those factors according to our needs. To comprehend the significance of these factors, we were required to do a practical and were asked to design a 15 to 20-minute task to be administered in a controlled environment. By conducting this test, using reward systems and analyzing performance appraisals and improvements, we realized that there was a sound relationship between performance outcomes and the factors that influence them. The requirement for this task was to understand the importance of the environmental factors that are present to influence the outcomes of the performance of individuals. Individuals were kept under strict observation and every factor that might help or hamper the outcomes of the tasks is noted down. Observational research is conducted. In a controlled environment, the class was taught how to make tomato, cheese and ham toast sandwiches by the invigilators ant their performance was monitored. They were asked to complete a required amount of sandwiches in a set time. This monitoring was first done under normal circumstances to measure the standard performance ability of the group.  

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Sustainability Project Spain Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Sustainability Project Spain - Research Paper Example This has lead to use of sustainable designs whose goals are to expose architectural solutions that guarantee the coexistence of inorganic and living organisms. Conceptual framework informs architects on the various ways to meet the goal of sustainable designs. In undertaking sustainable projects, three principles are used. The first principle aims at economizing on the resources for the architects to reduce the use of the non-renewable materials in the establishment and operation of the building. In a construction site, materials continuously flow in and out of the building. The flow incorporates the movement of materials from the industries that provide the building materials throughout the life span of the building to get a good nature that support continuation of humans as well as their activities. The second principle is the life cycle model has the support on the usefulness of resources where resources are useful depending on the area of application. The third concept of sustain able design is the humane design probably the most important of all three principles. The concept has an emphasis on the respect towards other living organisms within the ecosystem and these include plants and animals. The other two principles are not considered highly valuable in comparison to the humane design idea because they require more on the efficiency and conservation than on the ecosystem. The paper will discuss the sustainability project in Spain and the various features of the building and standards instituted by the Spanish building standards as well as the importance of sustainability in construction. In the sustainable project, in Barcelona, the building standards have to be taken into consideration, and these standards have an emphasis on the protection of the ecosystem. The standards include the energy standards, which have elevated Spain to higher grounds in terms of solar energy all over Europe.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Orem's theory of self-care in the maternity department Essay

Orem's theory of self-care in the maternity department - Essay Example As the essay declares the subject of short study here is, ‘The concept of Self-Care’ in nursing practice as envisaged in the maternity department of a hospital. It will be argued that the Praxis of Self-Care could greatly improve the rehabilitative role of nurses by positively influencing an individual’s self-care agency; which is the power component of self - care behavior, as according to Dorothea Orem’s Theory. This paper discusses that the term ‘Self-Care’, is familiar through Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory of nursing. Orem’s theory is composed of three related theories: the theory of Self-Care, the theory of Self-Care Deficit and, the theory of Nursing Systems. Orem’s theory views the individual as a self – care agent with especial needs. When ‘self-care’ is practiced it enhances health and well-being being. There is a visible link between responsibility and self-care; Self-care can be stated as a self-initiated, deliberate and purposeful activity linked to health and well-being. Pertinent action is performed to meet the therapeutic self-care demand arising out of known needs for care. This varies from time to time, as required by the various stages of life-cycle, of the individual person. The non-fulfillment of this demand, gives rise to a self-care deficit, which denotes the need for nursing. The decision to provide self-care is tak en jointly by the patient and the nurse. Herein the nurse plays a pivotal part in the influence of the patient.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Overview and History of Hispanic Culture

Overview and History of Hispanic Culture The term Hispanic was first coined the Federal government in the years of 1970s. This was in an attempt to provide a common identity to a large, group of population that had a connection to the Spanish language (Toomey and Chung, 2012). It is a term referring to individuals residing in the United States and whose origins are traced back to the regions of Latin America that speak Spanish. The regions whose people are considered the Hispanics are Central America, Mexico and South America and along the Caribbean (Davis, 2000). Efforts to link up the relationships between these multicultural societies it is also very important to understand how the world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts that results from communication between people of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds (Samovar, 2006). Basically, this communication occurs because of the contacts that exist within military installations, areas of business, education, entertainment, scientific instit utions, etc. It is therefore necessary to denote that to understand intercultural communication amongst the Hispanic, there is a need of focusing on their cultural beliefs, and social attributes. Culture has different meanings although it is used to denote to a set of standards, values, art, practices and music of a particular group. Becker (2004) defines culture, as a complex whole that includes beliefs, arts, knowledge, morals, law, and any other capability and habit which is acquired by mankind within a society. Furthermore, he denotes that culture is normally acquired and learned, as opposed to biological traits which are inherited (Samovar, 2006). As we are made to comprehend that this was innovative against the background of colonialism, social evolution and racialism which were the most common ideologies during the nineteenth century (Davis, 2000). Hispanics cultural beliefs and social attributes form the basis of this papers work that is in line with their communication links along their cultural setup. They are regarded as a highly group-oriented form of social setup. In this sense, Hispanics put strong emphasis on the family as the main source of the identity of an individual, and it protects against the hardships an individual passes through. People who do not have the capability of creating this set up are not easily trusted, and this process is very cautious (Toomey and Chung, 2012). The model of a family, amongst the Hispanics normally comprises of aunts, grandparents, cousins, etc. They use the term Familismo to describe their strong and supreme loyalty to extended families. Due to an emphasis on harmony, collectivity and corporation amongst the Hispanic people, this group normally emphasizes collective responsibility (Toomey and Chung, 2012). The decisions and behavior of each are ascribed to the strong ties shared with the extended family. Within these groups, there is a very rigid definition of sex roles. The elderly are revered and very much valued by all members of the family. On the end, the male figure is seen as a symbol of authority within these social constructs (Martin and Nakayama, 2013). Although some of the female roles are being defined of late, the women in Hispanic culture still occupy the subsidiary positions. In these groups, fathers have the prestige and authority and sons on the other end bear earlier individuality as compared to the daughters (Bergad and Klein, 2010). Language refers to a set of words that are used by a common people, who belong to the same country, community, cultural tradition, and geographical area (Piller, 2011). Under the Hispanic culture, language is viewed as a process of communication that helps to bring the society together. For them, Spanish is a key marker of personal, social and political identity (Cai, 2010). This means that Spanish speaking televisions make the much important part of the lives of the fluent English speakers. Communication among the Hispanics is never limited to one language, but there is a need to integrate both English and Spanish in communication. These individuals are not limited to neither English nor Spanish but to both. Religion has played a significant role among the Hispanics for generations. Most Hispanics are very religious, and the most dominant religion is Catholicism (Piller, 2011). Catholic religion plays an important role in shaping the manner in which these people behave, and communicate with one another. Becker (2004) explains that 90% of the Hispanic people practice the religion of Catholicism. Religion shapes the mode of relationships and also contributing to better intercultural communication. In recent years though, other faith denominations have been identified to grow within the people of the Hispanic community. The church is said to influence family life and also community affairs of the Hispanics by giving spiritual meaning to the people of the Hispanic culture (Cai, 2010). For every local community patron saints, days are celebrated in given much importance than what individuals do during their birthdays. When a light meal is served in the morning, it implies that a breakfast is served. El almuerzo or Lunch is usually the main meal of the Spanish- speakers. Some countries make it a custom for their adult family members and their children to come home and celebrate el almuerzo together (Martin and Nakayama, 2013). La siesta, which is a resting period among the Hispanics is said to be a habit among this group of people. In the early evening, la merinda, a light snack of coffee sandwiches is served, and it is usually for children. At around 9.00 p.m people normally conclude the days meals (Bergad and Klein, 2010). Hispanics refer to midday and evening meals to be very important and are always associated with sobremesa when guest is present. Sobremesa is a time the Hispanics talk over coffee or an after –dinner drink (Davis, 2000). The Hispanics only accept food served when it is offered for the second time. The behavior is learnt across cultures, and it helps in shaping an identit y in line with interpersonal communication among groups. Latino culture is denoted by celebrations of holidays and traditions. These traditions and celebrations normally help to shape the life of that culture (Toomey and Chung, 2012). The holidays help in shaping opportunities of deepening family, friends and communal connections. Others believe that such days do offer an excuse to party (Cai, 2010). The Hispanic celebrations range from religious to patriotic and from popular to unique. Navidad or better known as Christmas celebrations is the most common of them all because 90% of the population ascribe to the doctrine of Catholicism (Bergad and Klein, 2010). The other most common religious celebration is La Semana Santa or the holy week. La Semana Santa is a cultural practice amongst the Hispanic people, and it is common in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru (Cai, 2010). The Hispanic Heritage month is celebrated only in the United States. Hispanics tend to describe their communication in a very formal manner. They look at each other with formal considerations. Greetings and leave-taking are described with handshakes as a formal means of communication (Martin and Nakayama, 2013). Also between women, and men and women who share close relationships; hugging and light kissing is visible to be a common practice among these groups.In language address, words of respect are shared across cultures (Bergad and Klein, 2010). The words such as Don or Dona are used before peoples first names this shows how such forums are formal in nature. In non-formal communication setups speaking is often loud, fast and full of animated gestures for the better conveyance of meaning to the points stated (Martin and Nakayama, 2013). In terms of dressing, wearing of formal attires bears the meaning given to formal gatherings for example church, parties, social gatherings and also work (Davis, 2000). Hispanics are noted to be very relaxed about time and space of punctuality than the Native Americans do. Not arriving on time is a socially acceptable behavior among the Hispanics (Piller, 2011). For instance, a meeting that was scheduled to begin say at 8.00 would not commence until at around 8.30 because guests begin showing their faces around at the latter time (Toomey and Chung, 2012). Also, their accent limits them from public speaking, because they feel they might be marginalized or ignored all the same. Becker (2004) explains that life normally goes one way. Furthermore, people are always caught between the past and future. In other words, we are living with the uncertainty of which we are conscious. In this sense, there is that ability to see our destinies and fates dramatically different because of our cultural attitudes about controlling external forces (Cai, 2010). Hispanics believe in a strong sense of uncertainty that is inherent in life, and they take each day as it comes (Bergad and Klein, 2010). The term fatalismo is usually used by Latinos to express their belief that individuals are not able to do anything about fate. For example in Medicine and health matters, they would prefer not to inquire if they are diagnosed with cancer but rather they would just believe that Gods punishment has made them the way they are. Because of fatalism, Becker (2004) explains that Hispanic patients are normally reluctant to seek screenings for purposes of preventing diseases. They would only attend these screenings until the disease they are suffering from becomes severe (Martin and Nakayama, 2013). Preventive screenings are important because they help in avoiding diseases such as chronic illnesses, and cancer, and radical invasion procedures and treatments. Latinos are more concerned with relationships rather than time. The word Simpatia means kindness and it refers to the idea of being polite and pleasant even when in the presence of stress. Hispanics, therefore, are said to be very kind to anyone trying to communicate with them at all lengths (Cai, 2010). They command an optimistic approach at every instance even in the presence of depressing situations. An individual who is trying to communicate with these community members should never have an approach that could be read as neutral. This is because it would translate to unkindness. They demand attention, patience, respect and if possible communication is in Spanish. Furthermore, physical gestures like handshakes or placing hands on the shoulders of other people help in communicating warmth and happiness. In other cases, they demand confidence from their respondents. Intercultural communication is the communication system or elements that help to share information across different cultural groups. Communication occurs when there are a recipient or respondent and the sender or communicator, a medium of communication and the information itself. Hispanics are a group of people living in the United States but trace their origin to Spanish speaking nation like Cuba, Mexico and the Caribbean. In understanding these relationships in communication, despite a lot of emphasis and focus being placed on other cultures in America, Hispanics culture shape the American world. From formal communication to informal communication Hispanics culture demands confidence, respect attention and patience. In other cases, they demand that their respondents to speak in Spanish which translates into greater rapport between them and their communicators or recipients. References: Becker, P. (2004). Social change in America: The historical handbook, 2004. Lanham, MD:  Bernan Press. Bergad, L., Klein, H. (2010). Hispanics in the United States: A demographic, social, and  economic history, 1980-2005. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cai, D. (2010). Intercultural communication. Los Angeles, Calif.: SAGE. Davis, K. (2000). Bridging boundaries the pastoral care of U.S. Hispanics. Scranton, Pa.:  University of Scranton Press. Martin, J., Nakayama, T. (2013). Intercultural communication in contexts (6th ed.). New  York: McGraw-Hill. Piller, I. (2011). Intercultural communication a critical introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh  University Press. Samovar, L. (2006). Intercultural communication: A reader (11th ed.). Belmont, CA:  Thomson/Wadsworth. Toomey, S., Chung, L. (2012). Understanding intercultural communication (2nd ed.). New  York: Oxford University Press.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Julius Caesar Essay -- essays research papers

How Betrayal Led to Downfall in Julius Caesar   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the play, The Tragedy of Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare shows how friends often betray each other. Julius Caesar is about to be crowned king of Rome, when some well-known Romans decide that it is not a good idea for this to happen. They form a conspiracy and kill Caesar. Brutus, an honorable Roman and a very good friend of Caesar’s, betrays Caesar by killing him for the good of Rome. Antony, Caesar’s best friend and another honorable Roman, betrays Brutus by turning against the conspirators. Cassius, a respected Roman, and Brutus betray each other by arguing and destroying their friendship. All this betraying lead to many deaths in the play.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When Brutus betrayed Caesar for the good of Rome by killing him, he had no idea that he would regret it later on in his life. Brutus wanted to kill Caesar because he thought that if Caesar became king, he would forget who his real friends are and he would not pay attention to them. He also thought that Caesar would become too powerful and therefore did not want him to be king. This is shown when Portia says, â€Å"†¦Brutus hath a suit / that Caesar will not grant†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (2.4.41-42). Although Brutus had a clear conscience, the people of Rome did not. This eventually led to Brutus being driven out of Rome by the citizens. Not being associated with Rome anymore made Brutus’ life worse and he eventually took his own life as the only way to...

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Shakespeares Ambiguous Hamlet Essay -- Free GCSE Coursework

  Ã‚  Ã‚   That ambiguity exists within the Shakespearean drama Hamlet is a fact accepted by literary critics. Ambiguity of both word and action occur in the play. Let us examine the problem. Ruth Nevo in â€Å"Acts III and IV: Problems of Text and Staging† explains the ambiguity present within the hero’s most famous soliloquy: The critical problem arises from the perception that the speech apparently confuses two issues. Since we know what Hamlet’s obligatory task is, we cannot but register the possibility that the taking of arms and the â€Å"enterprises of great pitch and moment† refer to the killing of Claudius, though the logic of the syntax makes them refer to the self-slaughter which is the subject of the whole disquisition. And conversely, because self-slaughter is the ostensible subject of the whole disquisition, we cannot read the speech simply as a case of conscience in the matter of revenge – Christian revenge and the secular sanctions and motivations of honor. Whether Hamlet is talking of his revenge or of his desire for death, or of both, one substituting for the other as mask for truth (or truth for mask) therefore becomes the problem that this speech poses. (46)    Other examples of ambiguity are found in this tragedy by the Bard of Avon. D.G. James says in â€Å"The New Doubt† that the Bard has the ambiguous habit of charging a word with several meanings at once:    â€Å"Conscience does make cowards of us.† There has been, I am aware, much dispute as to what the word means here. For my part, I find not the least difficulty in believing that the word carries both its usual meaning and that of â€Å"reflection and anxious thought.† It is a platitude of Shakespeare study that Shakespeare could, with wonderful ease, charge ... An Impulsive but Earnest Young Aristocrat.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Masks of Hamlet. Newark, NJ: Univ. of Delaware P., 1992.    Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995.    West, Rebecca. â€Å"A Court and World Infected by the Disease of Corruption.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Court and the Castle. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957.    Wright, Louis B. and Virginia A. LaMar. â€Å"Hamlet: A Man Who Thinks Before He Acts.† Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. from The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia A. LaMar. N. p.: Pocket Books, 1958.